English Language theorists

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  • Created by: Hope G
  • Created on: 22-05-16 18:07
Grice's Maxims
Quality, Manner, Quantity, Relevance
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Giles: Convergance and Divergence
Convergence - speech is adjusted to match others to show unity. Divergence - speech is adjusted to distinguish from others to emphasis status or seperation
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Brown and Levinson: Politeness
A public self image: positive (need to be liked) and negative face (need not to be opposed upon. PF - desire for the reader to be respected
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Goffman: Face and Footing
Positive face - being friendly, open + sociable. Negative face - being closed off, uninviting + un-sociable
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Tannen: Lang + gender - Difference Theory
Described male+female conversation styles in terms of difference: Women care about forming bonds and avoiding conflict. Men care about status, independance and conflict
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Zimmerman+West: Dominance Theory
96% of interruptions made by men - suggests they are dominant in male-female conversations and society
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Nohara: Lang + Power
Goes AGAINST Z+W's theory. Suggests that women interrupt more than men to show their dominance and to gain footing
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Lakoff: Deficit Model
Womens language is weaker; hedging + fillers, tag questions, apologetic requests, polite forms, hypercorrect grammar + punctuation - swear less than men and use prestigious language
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Coates: Lang + Gender
All female conversations fall into categories; house talk, scandal, bitching, chatting
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Wareing: Lang + Power
Instrumental (law, education etc - enforces authority)+Influencial (advertising, politics etc - persuasive, inclines us to behave in a certain way)
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Dyer: Power in Advertising
An adverts main goal is to persuade - display an unattainable reality. Run by organisations who want us to part with our cash
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Fairclough: Power in Advertising
Ideology (building a relationship) Product Image (you want+need it) Implied familiarity(you are, you want, you need)
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Fairclough: Power in spoken discourse
There will always be a powerful participant + a less powerful one. Unequal encounters + normal rules of turn-taking don't operate
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Trudgill: how gender affects dialect in each social class
Found that class is more of a determiner of non-standard usage than gender, though women in all social classes are more likely to use the overt prestige or RP form –Men over-reported their non-standard usage–men wish to sound more non-standard
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Convergence - speech is adjusted to match others to show unity. Divergence - speech is adjusted to distinguish from others to emphasis status or seperation

Back

Giles: Convergance and Divergence

Card 3

Front

A public self image: positive (need to be liked) and negative face (need not to be opposed upon. PF - desire for the reader to be respected

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Positive face - being friendly, open + sociable. Negative face - being closed off, uninviting + un-sociable

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Described male+female conversation styles in terms of difference: Women care about forming bonds and avoiding conflict. Men care about status, independance and conflict

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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