English language theorists

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Cameron
says; women have been instructed in the proper way of talking just as they have been instructed in proper ways of dressing “verbal hygiene”
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Fishman;
Conversation between the sexes sometimes fails, not because of anything inherent in the way that women talk, but because of how men respond, or even don't respond.
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Zimmerman and West;
In mixed-sex conversations men are more likely to interrupt than women. In 1975 they reported that in 11 conversations men interrupted 46 times but women only two. Men also speak twice as much as women do in mixed sex conversations.
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Trudgill
Detailed study in which subjects were grouped by social class and sex. Trudgill found that men were less likely - and women were more likely - to use the prestige pronunciation of certain speech sounds.
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Tannen;
Represents male and female language use in a series of 6 contrasts: Status Vs support. Independence Vs intimacy. Advice Vs understanding. Information Vs feelings. Orders Vs proposals. Conflict Vs compromise
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Robin Lakoff;
In 1975, produced an account of women's language claiming that women: Hedge, use polite forms, use tag questions, use direct quotations, speak less frequently and apologies more often.
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Beattie;
Women and men interrupted with more or less equal frequency.
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Coates;
Argues that all -women conversations can fall into one of the following categories: House talk, Scandal, Bitching or Chatting
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Lexical Asymmetry;
terms of address for males have kept their positive meaning and connotations over time, whereas women’s terms of address tend to warp to have negative connotations.
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Fairclough;
Influential power (e.g. advertising, politics, media, culture) Instrumental power (e.g. law, education, business, management)
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Negative Face (according to Brown and Levinson)
we try to satisfy the negative face of others by, for example, accompanying requests with apologies
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Positive Face (according to Brown and Levinson)
we try to satisfy the positive face wants of others by greeting them, asking how they are, showing respect, expressing admiration and approval, and including people.
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Grice’s Maxim; Quality-
speakers must tell the truth, Quantity- speakers must give right amount of information,
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Grice’s Maxim; Relation-
get the point and stay on the point of conversation
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Grice’s Maxim;Manner-
present material in an orderly way.
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Lakoff's Politeness Principles-
cooperative conversation required: not imposing, giving options, making the receiver feel good.
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Classroom (Sinclair/Coulthard);
initiation response feedback, formulation: teacher rewords sentences for students in order to impose understanding and meaning.
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Synthetic personalisation;
build relationships between text producer and text receiver by using personal pronouns such as “you” “us”.
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power asymmetry:
the power one speak has over another.
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Constraints
A way in which the pp blocks of control contributions of the less powerful participants
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Lakoff's rule for conversations
1) Be clear. 2) Be Polite. 3) Do not impose. 4) Give options. 5) Be friendly.
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Howard Giles - Convergence and Divergence Theory
Convergence - Speech is adjusted to match others(Shows unity and feeling of shared identity) Divergence - Opposite to convergence but emphasizes separation and distinction.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Conversation between the sexes sometimes fails, not because of anything inherent in the way that women talk, but because of how men respond, or even don't respond.

Back

Fishman;

Card 3

Front

In mixed-sex conversations men are more likely to interrupt than women. In 1975 they reported that in 11 conversations men interrupted 46 times but women only two. Men also speak twice as much as women do in mixed sex conversations.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Detailed study in which subjects were grouped by social class and sex. Trudgill found that men were less likely - and women were more likely - to use the prestige pronunciation of certain speech sounds.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Represents male and female language use in a series of 6 contrasts: Status Vs support. Independence Vs intimacy. Advice Vs understanding. Information Vs feelings. Orders Vs proposals. Conflict Vs compromise

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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