English Language Gender Theory

The Defecit Model
Women's language is different and somehow inferior to male's. (Jesperson and Lakoff)
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Otto Jesperson (Defecit model)
Male language forms were 'the norm' and the language of others was deficient.
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Robin Lakoff (Defecit Model)
Work based on observation and impressions. She noted key female language traits eg hedges, polite forms, tag questions. Her book is "Language and a woman's place."
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The Dominance Model
Language variation is more about our role in society than our gender, and traditionally, men have held more dominant roles.
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Pamela Fishman (Dominance Model)
Looked at the way she thought verbal interaction helped construct and maintain hierachal relations between men and women. Listened to 52 hours of conversation between young US couples. She found that women asked more questions than men- insecurity.
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Fishman (continued)
Women used more monitoring features and topic initiation. Conclusion- women do the support work and active maintenance to keep conversation going (the shitwork) Men tend to control the conversation, helping to reinforce their dominance and power.
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The Difference Model
Men are dominant in speech by using conversational features like holding the floor, interrupting etc.
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Deborah Tannen (Difference Model)
Her book- "You Just Don't Understand". Men and women socialised into seeing themselves as having different roles and positions in life and were trained to use different linguistic strategies in interactions.
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Tannen (continued)
6 contrasts between male & female language eg Advice vs Understanding, Inormation vs Feeling and Conflict vs Compromise. Men=report talk, women=rapport talk.
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Judith Butler
Gender Trouble (her book) Gender is performative- we perform a role- behaving in ways that consolidate an impression of being male/female.
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Hyde
'Gender Similarities' hypothesis= claiming there are more similarities than differences in language use within each gender. Differences may be due to other varibales such as class, age, ethnicity.
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Cameron
Challenges notion that there are innate differences between men & women. Speakers construct and perform gendered indentities for themselves. Gender is something speakers do as part of a deliberate projection of identity-CHALLENGES deficit&difference
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Stanley Fish
Interpretative communities of readers who interpret texts in shared ways. Male readers who belong to the samle social group may have a collective stance on how femlales should be viewed.
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Eckert
Jocks&Burnouts- observed friendship groups in US school. Identified Jocks&Burnouts. Jocks-engaged in and enjoyed school. Burnouts-smoking, antischool. Found people tend to speak more like their friends, those who shared social practices.
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Fetterley
Women read books they unconsciously accept crude and sexist reps of female charcters because they adopt a default male reader position.
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Vivian De Klerk
Challenged Lakoff's findings about use of taboo terms/expletives. Found that women used a range of v strong terms particularly to describe men.
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Hall
Encoding'decoding in culture, media and language. Texts are presented in such a way that positions the reader towards adopting a preferred or domniannt reading.
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Talbot
Explores how stereotypes persist in the representation of male and female speech in a range of texts. Texts seemed to use steretype that women talk more but do so in a way that marks the less talkative male- suggests his behaviour is deficient.
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Eckert and McConnell-Ginet
Gender is a set of practices through which people claim and construct identities.
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Schneider and Foss
English is biased in favour of the male in syntax and semantics.
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Bodine
Coined term "androcntric" (male centred)
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Julia Stanley
Negative smeantic space for women. Isn't just because of less nouns to refer to femaes but this smaller number of words also encompasses lesser value.
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Hoey
Lexical priming-well used words and ohrases often used in a throw away kind of way carry an innate gender prejudice.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Male language forms were 'the norm' and the language of others was deficient.

Back

Otto Jesperson (Defecit model)

Card 3

Front

Work based on observation and impressions. She noted key female language traits eg hedges, polite forms, tag questions. Her book is "Language and a woman's place."

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Language variation is more about our role in society than our gender, and traditionally, men have held more dominant roles.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Looked at the way she thought verbal interaction helped construct and maintain hierachal relations between men and women. Listened to 52 hours of conversation between young US couples. She found that women asked more questions than men- insecurity.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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