English Language Gender, Occupation & Accent

Robin Lakoff (1975) Gender
Women's language and power. 14 noticable differences between men and womans language. Hedges, tag questions, super polite forms, no humour etc. Looks at the SOCIAL implications of speech Women are weaker due to patriarchy. x- 1975? Out of date?
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William O'Barr (1980) Gender
Women language. Language of the courtroom. Women lawyers are more assertive and interrupt more (x- Pilkington) Witnesses of either sex use Lakoffs weaker speech. 'Powerless language rather than Powerless female'
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Janet Holmes Gender
Women are more polite. Positive and Negative facing. Men use language as a tool (referential & pedagogic) Women use to keep in touch (expressive) Women more verbally intellegant
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Pamela Fishman Gender
Conversations fail due to males response. Women ask questions due to power and not weakness in personality (x- Lakoff) Mixed sex conversations males talk twice as much. x- Small sample 52 hours, not representative
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Zimmerman & West Gender
Interruptions. Males interrupt in mixed sex. Same sex conversations both males and females interrupt the same amount x - Beatti mixed sex conversations interrupted simular amount males - 34.1 women 33.8
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Tannen Gender
6 Categories: Staus vs support, independance vs intimacy, advice vs understanding, information vs feelings, orders vs proposals, conflict vs compromise
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Pilkington Gender
Women talk to affirm solidarity focus on feelings and emotions, agree frequently. Males find long pauses acceptable, disagree lots, competitive x - O'Barr
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Cameron Gener
Gender interaction risen from childhood. Womens language changes between year 6-7. Both genders gossip. x- Lakoff & Tannen minimal responses mean the same in both languages
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Giles (Occupation)
Accomodation theory. Change to converge and diverge with person being addressed
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Oakley (1993) Occupation
Language of Doctors. no place for social/ emotional factors. paitence attitudes to pregnancy ignored/
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Giles (Accent & Dialect)
People discussed capital punishment with different accents. RP seen as prestiduge form, top was RP and written text for pursuasion, regional accents more likely to change mind.
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Workman (2008) Accent & Dialect
Bath Spa uni. Birmingham accent- Negative with criminal stereotypes, Yorkshire seen as best accent out of Brummie, yorkshire and RP
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Cheshire (Accent & Dialect)
relationship between gramatical variable and peer group. BAsed around playground and persoanl view of social class, 'they calls me names' 'you was with me' lower social class more accpetance of criminal activity
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Petyt (Accent & Dialect)
'H' dropping in Bradford. corrolation between lower class and h dropping. Lower w/c 93% - Upper m/c 12%
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Milroy (Accent & Dialect)
language of the w/c in Belfast Protestant- 'Ballymackarett' low male unemployment, 'The hammer' substantial male unempolyment Catholic 'The clonard' substantial male unemployment. Women use more prestigue form in ballymackarett.
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Halliday - Anti language
shared language between groups that is inaccessible to non-users
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Coates (Gender)
Males reject topics introduced by females
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Kerswill (Age & Accent)
Koineisation - creation of a new language, includes dialect levelling ie. Cockney, Kentish
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Kerswill (Accent & Dialect)
Dialect Levelling - standardisation of locational variations loss of regional accents ages 4,8,12 Milton Keynes, Reading & Hull. youngsters changed
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Code switching (Occupation, Accent & Gender)
several language forms depending on audience, Giles accommodation theory
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Sociolinguistic maturation (Locaion, Age, Accent & Dialect)
age at which accent remains the same, Kerswill's Milton Keynes sudy
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Milroy Open and closed networks (Accent and Dialect, Class)
3 working class areas assessed 'th' in mother and the 'h' in hat. Higher network strength associated with non-standard forms
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Swales (Occupation)
members of a discourse community often have common goals and lexis specific to the occupation
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Card 2


William O'Barr (1980) Gender


Women language. Language of the courtroom. Women lawyers are more assertive and interrupt more (x- Pilkington) Witnesses of either sex use Lakoffs weaker speech. 'Powerless language rather than Powerless female'

Card 3


Janet Holmes Gender


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Card 4


Pamela Fishman Gender


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Card 5


Zimmerman & West Gender


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