English language - Gender

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  • Created by: Briony98
  • Created on: 05-06-16 22:15
Actor
The individual responsible for the action of a verb process
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Affected
The person affected by the material action process
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Covert Marking
Marking that is opposite and concrete e.g young (marked) and old (not marked)
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Covert Prestige
The dialect is perceived as being inferior, but which compels its speakers to use it to show membership in an exclusive community
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Deborah Tannen (Theorist)
Noticed the contrast in the purpose of language between men and women e.g men try to gain status and women support or men give information and women talk about feelings
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Deficit Theory
That women use speech that is inferior to and less authoritative than men
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Difference Theory
That variation between male and female speech is a result of the different subcultures or attitudes rather than gender differences
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Dominance Theory
That within mixed-sex groups, men control the conversation by interrupting
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Folklinguistics
Attitudes and assumptions that have no real evidence
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Hypercorrection
A non-standard feature that results from the over application of a rule of grammar, often linked with a desire to appear formal or educated
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Jennifer Coates (Theorist)
Suggests that all female talk is cooperative and that they support the speakers. Women in typically male professions start to use more male speech (1990s)
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Modified Nouns
Suggest a deviation from the norm e.g female doctor or a male midwife
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Negative Politeness
Trying not to put people out of their way e.g "I know I'm a pain, but..."
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O'Barr and Atkins (Theorists)
In courtrooms, concluded that some of Lakoff's findings were correct, but that deficient language was a result of a lack of power and not due to gender (1980s)
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Otto Jesperson (Theorist)
Published a set of ideas about female language being deficient e.g women have a smaller vocabulary than men
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Overt Marking
Marking taking place through affiliation or modification e.g policeman/policewoman
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Overt Prestige
A dialect that is generally widely recognised as being used by a culturally dominant group
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Pamela Fishman (Theorist)
Argues that mixed-sex conversations often fail due to the way that men respond not the way women talk. Also claims that men talk twice as much as women in these conversations (1980s)
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Peter Trudgill (Theorist)
Found that women were more likely to use the prestige pronunciation to aim for higher prestige, meaning they used more hypercorrectness. Men used it less to appear tough and/or down to Earth
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Politeness Theory
Positive politeness reduces the distance between participants and negative politeness respects and upholds social distance
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Positive Politeness
Can be used between people of equal social standing or to people of a higher standing. Includes things such as slang and terms of endearment
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Robin Lakoff (Theorist)
Identifies the key features of female language e.g tag questions, super polite forms, hedging and empty adjectives
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Semantic Derogation
When lexical items have negative connotations associated with them
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Semantic Deterioration
When lexical items develop negative connotations over time
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Zimmerman and West (Theorists)
Researched the amount of interruptions in mixed-sex conversations, 96% were made by men, believed this reflected the male dominance in society
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The person affected by the material action process

Back

Affected

Card 3

Front

Marking that is opposite and concrete e.g young (marked) and old (not marked)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The dialect is perceived as being inferior, but which compels its speakers to use it to show membership in an exclusive community

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Noticed the contrast in the purpose of language between men and women e.g men try to gain status and women support or men give information and women talk about feelings

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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