Language and Gender

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  • Created by: Briony98
  • Created on: 05-06-16 22:15
Hegomony
History of power in one area e.g. Britain's power was with men.
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Liberal Feminists
Want equality, like promoting working outside of the home.
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Cultural Feminism
Celebrates the differences between genders, values women's qualities, see the genders as different.
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Socilist Feminism
Challenges capitalism and patriarchy, links to class structure.
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Radical Feminism
They want a radical reform, say the patriarchy must be dissolved.
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Feminism and Language
That women use speech that is inferior to and less authoritative than men.
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Folklinguistics
Attitudes and assumptions that have no real evidence.
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Hypercorrection
A non-standard feature that results from the over application of a rule of grammar, often linked with a desire to appear formal or educated.
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Modified Nouns
Suggest a deviation from the norm e.g female doctor or a male midwife.
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Difference Theory
Differences in male and female speech - result of the different subcultures/attitudes not gender differences. Status vs Support, Independence vs Intimacy, Advice vs Understanding, Info vs Feeling, Order vs Proposals, Conflict vs Compromise.
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Dominance Theory
That within mixed-sex groups, men control the conversation by interrupting.
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O'Barr and Atkins (Theorists)
In courtrooms, concluded that some of Lakoff's findings were correct, but that deficient language was a result of a lack of power and not due to gender (1980s).
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Otto Jesperson (Theorist)
Published a set of ideas about female language being deficient e.g women have a smaller vocabulary than men.
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Jennifer Coates (Theorist)
Suggests that all female talk is cooperative and that they support the speakers. Women in typically male professions start to use more male speech (1990s).
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Pamela Fishman (Theorist)
Argues that mixed-sex conversations often fail due to the way that men respond not the way women talk. Also claims that men talk twice as much as women in these conversations (1980s).
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Peter Trudgill (Theorist)
Found that women were more likely to use the prestige pronunciation to aim for higher prestige, meaning they used more hypercorrectness. Men used it less to appear tough and/or down to Earth.
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Robin Lakoff (Theorist)
Identifies the key features of female language e.g tag questions, super polite forms, hedging and empty adjectives.
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Zimmerman and West (Theorists)
Researched the amount of interruptions in mixed-sex conversations, 96% were made by men, believed this reflected the male dominance in society.
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Politeness Theory
Positive politeness reduces the distance between participants and negative politeness respects and upholds social distance.
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Positive Politeness
Can be used between people of equal social standing or to people of a higher standing. Includes things such as slang and terms of endearment.
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Negative Politeness
Trying not to put people out of their way e.g "I know I'm a pain, but...".
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Semantic Derogation
When lexical items have negative connotations associated with them.
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Semantic Deterioration
When lexical items develop negative connotations over time.
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Overt Prestige
A dialect that is generally widely recognised as being used by a culturally dominant group.
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Overt Marking
Marking taking place through affiliation or modification e.g policeman/policewoman.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Want equality, like promoting working outside of the home.

Back

Liberal Feminists

Card 3

Front

Celebrates the differences between genders, values women's qualities, see the genders as different.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Challenges capitalism and patriarchy, links to class structure.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

They want a radical reform, say the patriarchy must be dissolved.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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