English Language concepts

Accommodation
Where a speaker adapts to another speaker's accent, dialect or socioloect.
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Affordance
Linguistic and behavioural choices provided by technology.
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Bias
A form of prejudice in favour of or against an idea, person or group, expressed through language/images and so on.
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Convergence
Where a speaker moves towards another speaker's accent, dialect or sociolect.
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Covert prestige
Describes high social status through use of non-standard forms.
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Dialect
A language style associated with a particular geographical region
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Divergence
Where a speaker actively distances themselves from another speaker by accentuating their own accent or dialect
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Downward convergence
Making your accent or lexis more informal.
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Exophoric reference
A reference to something, often cultural, beyond the text
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Idiolect
Your own individual way of speaking
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Initialism
Abbreviation using the first letter of a group of words and pronounced separately. eg FBI, CIA, DVD
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Negative face
Our desire to avoid doing something we don't want to do, such as giving money to a stranger.
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Negative politeness
A more indirect, hedged approach, often using negative constructions.
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Overt prestige
Refers to a dialect used by a culturally powerful group
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Positive face
Our need to maintain self-esteem. Positive is threatened when we are criticised in any way
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Positive politeness
An informal approach that assumes the other party will agree
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Representation
Language used to present an impression of ourselves, or of an event, company or institution to the wider world.
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Sociolect
A language style associated with a particular social group
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Standardisation
The process of forming a uniform language that demands conformity by all variant language forms.
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Topic management
The way topics in a conversation are organised or handled from speaker to speaker
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Upward convergence
Changing your accent or lexical choices to something you perceive as more prestigious
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Descriptivist
An attitude to language that describes what is there, explaining it, without judgement.
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Prescriptivist
An attitude to language that suggests that some forms of language are more valuable than others- prescribes what is correct and what is not.
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Personal power
People who hold power because of their occupational role
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Political power
Power held by politicians, police and legal professions
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Social group power
Power held as a result of social age, class, gender, etc
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Instrumental power
Power that is authoritative and enforceable because it is supported by 'instruments of law'
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Influential power
Power that persuades or influences us to change our behaviour or beliefs
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Prestige forms
Standard English dialect, Received Pronunciation
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Power in discourse
Ways in which power is manifested in situations through language
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Power behind discourse
Focus on the social and ideological reasons behind the passing of power
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Members' resourses
Part of synthetic personalisation- readers' cultural and cognitive understanding of the world; assumptions of their existing knowledge
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Linguistic and behavioural choices provided by technology.

Back

Affordance

Card 3

Front

A form of prejudice in favour of or against an idea, person or group, expressed through language/images and so on.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where a speaker moves towards another speaker's accent, dialect or sociolect.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describes high social status through use of non-standard forms.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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