English Language

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FRICATIVE
sounds produced by forcing air through lips or teeth
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INSTRUMENTAL
changes language in order to get what you want
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REPRESENTATIONAL
changes language in order to achieve information
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PROTO WORDS
false/practice words babies make to copy sounds of adults 9-12 months
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INTONATION
the pitch of a speaker's voice
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PRACTICING
child practicing words by itself
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SUBSTITUTION
substituting a letter/sound for another
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BIDILACTISM
being able to switch between two forms of speech CDS
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PIAGET
heuristic - children develop their linguistic competence alongside their ability to understand the world around them
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EMERGENT WRITING
scribble writing
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DESCENDER
writing goes below the line
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ASSIMILATION
words that are pronounced differently to make it easier for the speaker to pronounce
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ALLUSION
when a speaker becomes distracted - speaks of something outside of the set dialogue
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UNDER EXTENSION
a word used to label is reduced to include only part of its original meaning - word is restricted to one thing - coat - jacket
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INTERNALISATION
when a child learning language starts to apply one of the language's rules consistently
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ADJACENCY PAIR
dialogue that follows a set pattern
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ASSONANCE
words structured close together using similar vowel sounds. lOw smOky hOles. usually used by parents to interact with child
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LENNEBERG
CRITICAL PERIOD - children have a limited period that their language can develop
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PROSODY
non verbal aspects of speech, stress, pitch, intonation, volume and pauses
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DELETION OF STRESSED SYLLABLES
reducing words to monosyllabic i.e. banana - nana
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EGOCENTRIC
Lewis - everything revolves around that one person : early meantal state of a child in which they can only understand things existing in relation to themselves
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ORTHOGRAPHY
rules of spelling and use of letters
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SIMPLIFICATION
simplifying lexis to make it easier to pronounce - usually reducing consonants or clusters
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LAD
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE - the innate ability for language - CHOMSKY
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BRUNER
INTERACTIONAL - children learn through the input of their carers
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HOLOPHRASTIC STAGE
one word stage - 12-18 months
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SKINNER
immitation of adults
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BABBLING
stage after cooing - production of short vowel/consonant combinations by a baby
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HEURSITIC
children who explore the environment using language
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ASCENDER
writing goes above the line of writing space provided
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PERSONAL
how we personally speak
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INTERACTIONAL
changing language depending on our relationship with others
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OVER EXTENSION
a word used to label everying of that topic - every man daddy
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CONSONANT CLUSTER REDUCTION
spider - pider, dropping consonants if there are too many
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UPTALK
tone of speaker heightens at the end of speech
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PHONEMIC EXPANSION
increase of phonology to experiment with a new word
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ADDING
adding vowels to the end of words - doggie
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CDS
CHILD DIRECTED SPEECH - the way caregivers talk to children
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REGULATORY
changing language to control other behaviour
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IMAGINITIVE
expressing yourself artistically
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DELETION
deleting the final consonant
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TELEGRAPHIC
three of more words 24-32 months
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REPEATING
echoing something an adult has said - SKINNER
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LABELLING
naming objects, people, events and places
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TWO WORD STAGE
two word combinations 18-24 months
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PHONEMIC CONTRACTION
phonology of sound is reduced to the main language
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POST-TELEGRAPHIC
36+ months - are grasping grammar
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CHOMSKY
children are born with the ability of language
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REDUPLICATION
reduplicating whole syllables - mama/dada
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NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
behaviour that isnt rewarded
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CURSIVE HANDWRITING
handwriting is joined
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VIRTUOUS ERROR
'goed' - went, reveals some understanding but grammatically incorrect
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POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT
when a behaviour is rewarded
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HOLOPHRASE
using one word to express an idea i.e. "ball" meaning child wants the ball
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DELETION OF STRESSED SYLLABLES
reducing words to monosyllabic i.e. banan - nana
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BORROWING
when words from one language fall into common usage in another
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BROADENING
when a word had acquired more meanings
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DESCRIPTIVISM
the opinion that there is no incorrect way to speak
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ARCHAISM
archaic words
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NARROWING
when a word has become more specific in its meaning
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ARTICLE
'the' - definite article, 'a' - indefinite article
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PEJORATION
when a word has taken on a more negative meaning
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PRESCRIPTIVISM
the opinion that there should be one way of speaking
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DISCOURSE
whether it is a written or spoken piece
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COINING
the term for creating a new word
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AMELIORATION
a word has taken on a more positive meaning
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RECEIVED PRONOUNCIATION
an accent traditionally associated with educated people and the upper class
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PHONOLOGY
the patterns of sounds
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CONTRACTION
can't, might've - when a word thats formed by shortening and combining two words
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DETERMINER
a word that goes before a noun to show possessin - his, her, my mine
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CLIPPING
telephone - phone : a shortened version of a word
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FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE
metaphors and similies
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DIALECT
the way someone speaks according to their region
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SOCIOLECT
the dialect of a specific social class
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IDIOLECT
the speech habits peculiar to a particular person
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DEIXIS
reference tro something outside the text
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POLITICAL CORRECTNESS
avoiding using language or ideas that might be offensive to certain groups of people
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NEOLOGISMS
new words that enter a language
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WEAKENING
when the meaning of a word weakens
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ABSTRACT NOUNS
emotions, ideas, concept
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CONCRETE NOUNS
physical things like a table
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MODIFIER
adjective - a describing word
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SOCIOLECT
the dialect of a specific social class
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ACRONYM
a new word made from the initial letters of all the words in a phrase - NASA
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IDIOLECT
the speech habits to a particular person
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AUXILIARY VERBS
can, could, would, may, might, must, shall, should, will
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DIALECT
the way a person speaks according to their region
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COLLECTIVE NOUN
refers to a group of things - people, animals, objects
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

changes language in order to get what you want

Back

INSTRUMENTAL

Card 3

Front

changes language in order to achieve information

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

false/practice words babies make to copy sounds of adults 9-12 months

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

the pitch of a speaker's voice

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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