English As Revision Flash Cards - Paper 2

Various key words and theorists that could be mentioned in your exam answer for paper 2

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Grices 4 Maxims
Quanitity, Quality, Relevance and Manner
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Maxim of Quantity
Make your contribution as informative as needed, and do not inform to much
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5 purposes of tag questions
Facilitative, Confrontational, Softening, affective and expressing uncertainty
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Maxim of Relevance
Stay relevent to the topic
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Robin Lakoff
Composed the theory of Dominance
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Deborah Tannen
Composed the theory of Difference
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Theory of Difference
By Deborah Tannen, said women speak to support and men speak to compete
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O'barr and Atkins
30 month Courtroom study that showed Lakoffs assumptions were of powerless language not womens language
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Recieved Pronunciation (RP)
Traditional accent associated with the educated and upper class. Contains lots of long vowels and pronunciation of H and T sounds
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Janet Holmes
Suggested tag questions may function as a device to help maintain discussion rather than show uncertainty
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Maxim of Manner
Be Breif, orderly and avoid obscurity of expression
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Facilitative tag questions
Helps the conversation move along, "Can i help you?"
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Confrontational tag questions
To strengthen a negative point or force an answer, "You do understand dont you?"
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Affective tag questions
Express feeling, "Do you like that?"
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Peter Trudgill
Studied male and female speakers pronunciation of the suffix 'ing' in Norwich. Men used non standard pronunciation and women over reported
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Softening tag questions
Make a critical comment seem less severe, "Well that was no good was it?"
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Zimmerman and West
Researchers that found 96% of men in mixed sex conversations interrupted
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Maxim of Quality
Only say something you believe to be true and have adequate evidence to support
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Jennifer Coates
Suggested all female talk is cooperative to help negotiate discussions and support eachother
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Technical or occupational terms and language
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Brown and Levinson
Composed the theory of Politeness, both positive and negative
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Composed the theory of Face
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Face threatening act
Act that ruins the conversation of the positive/negative face
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Positive face
The need to feel wanted or make others feel wanted
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William Labov
Created theory of Overt and Covert prestige
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Positive politeness
Compliments, jokes or agreement
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Negative politeness
Peccemism, apologetic or indirect
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Synthetic personalisation
Using personal pronouns like 'You' to link to the reader and create a false freindship/relationship
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Examples of Dominance Theory
Women use more: Imperatives, Empty adjectives, tag questions, indirect commands, superpolite forms, hedge phrases etc.
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Negative face
The need to not feel imposed on
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Jenny Chesire
Anaylysed talk of teenagers in Reading and found in nearly all cases boys used more non standard forms of English
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Make your contribution as informative as needed, and do not inform to much


Maxim of Quantity

Card 3


Facilitative, Confrontational, Softening, affective and expressing uncertainty


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Card 4


Stay relevent to the topic


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Composed the theory of Dominance


Preview of the back of card 5
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