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  • Created by: evamalley
  • Created on: 13-04-16 15:09
Ideology
A comprehensive vision or set of values and standard followed by a government or body of people.
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Crumbling Castle
The attitude that language is a precious commodity and needs to be preserved.
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Damp Spoon Syndrome
The attitude that change happens through laziness - people are aware that they may be using language incorrectly, but don't bother to change.
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Infectious Disease
The attitude that change happens without us realising - we 'catch' language use - this could be through the influence of TV or film.
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Sociolect
Language typical for a social group.
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Idiolect
Language typical for an individual.
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Convergence
Adjusting your speech behaviour to become more like others.
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Divergence
Adjusting your speech pattern to become more individual and less like others.
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Prescriptivism
An attitude to language that makes judgements about what is right and wrong. Presccriptivists hold language up to an ideal standard that should be maintained.
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Descriptivism
An attitude to language use that seeks to describe it without making value judgments.
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Ethnicity
The fact or state of belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural tradition.
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Stereotyping
A simplified and standardized conception or image invested with special meaning and held in common by members of a group.
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(Grice's Maxims) Quality
Speak the truth and do not knowingly mislead.
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(Grice's Maxims) Quantity
Use an appropriate amount of detail.
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(Grice's Maxims) Relevance
Keep what is being discussed releevant to the topic.
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(Grice's Maxims) Manner
Avoid vagueness and ambiguity.
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Power asymmetry
A marked difference in the power status of individuals involved in discourse.
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Unequal encounter
An alternative term for asymmetrical power, highlighting the power one speaker has over another.
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Powerful participant
A speaker with a higher status in a given contect, who is therefore able to impose a degree of power.
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Less powerful participant
Those with less status in a given context, who are subject to constraints imposed by more powerful participants.
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Constraints
Ways in which powerful participants may block or control the contributions of lesss powerful participants.
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Positive Face
The need to feel wanted, liked and appreciated.
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Negative Face
The need to have freedom of thought and action and not feel imposed upon.
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Face-threatening act
A communicative act that threatens someone's positive or negative face needs.
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Positive and negative politeness strategies
Strategies that a speaker might use to mitigate (soften) or avoid face-threatening acts.
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(FSAs) Positive
Makes the person being spoken to feel good.
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(FSAs) Negative
Shows the speaker in a negative light.
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(FTAs) Bald on-record
Direct threat to a person's negative face needs.
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(FTAs) Off-record
A more subtle threat to someone's negative face needs.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The attitude that language is a precious commodity and needs to be preserved.

Back

Crumbling Castle

Card 3

Front

The attitude that change happens through laziness - people are aware that they may be using language incorrectly, but don't bother to change.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The attitude that change happens without us realising - we 'catch' language use - this could be through the influence of TV or film.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Language typical for a social group.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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