English Language Terminology

  • Created by: Qamar
  • Created on: 09-01-13 23:24
Accents
How words are pronounced.
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Accommodation Theory
Changing the way you speak to accommodate the context.
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Pre/Post - Modifiers
Words used to describe. - before or after the subject.
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Adjacency Pairs
Expected responses.
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Anaphoric Reference
When the proper noun has been used initially and then a pronoun is used to refer back to it. E.g. "David Cameron said..." "His intial offer was..."
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Active Sentence
When the subject performs the action. E.g. "The Girl was washing the dog."
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Asynchronous
When there is a gap in the response. Usually found in transcripts.
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Back Channelling
Supporting what somebody else is saing. E.g. "Yeah, that's true"
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Convergence
Changing your speech to closely match the speaker.
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Colloquialism
Non-standard English that is generally accepted.
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Covert Prestige
To speak in a certain way for group loyalty.
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Challenging Face
Going against social conventions. E.g. Correcting someone, Not giving an expected response.
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Cataphoric Reference
When the pronoun is used initially and the proper noun is used to refer back to it. E.g. "The public support him." "David Cameron is a respected politician."
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Deixis
Ponting words such as "It" and "This"
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Dialect
The variation in language produced as a result of local community and regional diversity.
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Divergence
Separating yourself from the group, not changing your speech for others.
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Discourse Marker
A word or phrase that shows conversation is moving in a certain direction.
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Denotation
The literal meaning of a word.
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Direct Speech
Real speech from someone that is un-edited.
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Dynamic Verb
It has an actual action to it.
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Determinate Article
THE
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Exclusion
To exclude someone from the conversation.
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Ellipsis
Words or Grammar that are missing.
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Elision
Slurring one or more sounds. E.g. "Gonna"
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Eye Dialect
Use of non-standard spelling for speech, to draw attention to the pronunciation.
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False Start
Starting the sentence incorrectly and starting again.
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Fillers
Used to signal a pause in speech but not finished talking. E.g. "Err"
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Graphology
Images in a text, the study of marks, visual elements of a text.
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Genre
The form of a text such as a letter, novel, recipe, poster.
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Grices Maxims
Quantity, Quality, Releveance and Manner. Usually seen in a transcript.
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Hypernym
A general word that can be specified. E.g. "The colour RED"
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Hyponym
Different shades of a certain word. "RED = Scarlett, Crimson, Vermilion"
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Homonyms
Words that have the same pronunciation but different spellings. E.g. "To, too, two."
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Hedges
Not committing yourself to an answer. E.g. "Might be" "I think so"
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Heurisitic
Language used to gain knowledge about the world.
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Idiolect
Language style acquired due to personal characteristics or social experiance such as a lisp.
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Inclusion
Speaking in a certain way to identify yourself to a group.
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Interjections
An abrupt remark. An exclamation. E.g. "Ah" "Hi" "No!"
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Interactional
Language used to form and maintain a relationship.
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Instrumental
Language used to express needs.
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Imaginitive
Stories or jokes used to create an imaginary enviroment.
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Interrogative
Sentences that ask questions with the 5 W's. What, Who, When, Where, Why. Or Yes or No questions.
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Irregular verbs
When the spelling changes with the tense. E.g. "Ran - Run - Running."
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Itinery
A form of layout, like a diary. Day 1, 2, 3 etc. - What to do.
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Intensifier
Words such as "Much" and "Most".
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Jargon
Occupational Words.
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Lexeme
Another word for "Words"
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Lexical Field
Words related to a specific subject.
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Mode
Written or spoken form of language.
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Multi-speaker discourse
When there is more than one person speaking.
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Monologue
One person conversation.
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Modal Verbs
Words that allow a choice. A politeness feature.
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Metatalk
When you are talking about talking.
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Concrete Noun
Physical - E.g. "Ball" or "Phone". Imagined - E.g. "Stars" or "Alien".
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Abstract Noun
Words that cannot be physically touched. E.g. "Beauty" "Courage" "Hate" "Revenge"
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Overt Prestige
Deliberately changing your speech to be more valuable in a group.
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Phonetics
Sounds in English and how they are produced or described.
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Pragmatic Assumption
An assumption that is made based on what is seen or read.
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Preposition
Shows a position. E.g. "Under" or "Over"
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Phonology
The sounds of words.
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Purpose
Primary or Secondary purpose of a text. Why the text was written.
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Paralingustic Features
Communication that occurs via body language and intonation of the voice.
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Phatic Talk
Small talk E.g. "The weather looks nice today".
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Pre-sequencing
Preparing or avoiding conversation.
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Personal Pronoun.
It shows belonging. E.g. "I" "We" "Me" "Us" "You"
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Passive Sentence
When the subject has an action done to it by someone or something else. E.g. "The dog was being washed by the girl".
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Register
How language varies in relation to audience, purpose and context.
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Represented Speech
A speech that is pre-prepared or rehersed.
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Recieved Pronunciation (RP)
This is considered the official English.
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Regular Verb
when you add "ED" at the end of a verb.
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Regulatory
Telling others what to do.
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Representative
Conveying facts and information.
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Sociolect
Language variation created through Education, Class, Occupation and Social groups.
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Slang
Not generally accepted English. Usually regional.
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Semantic Field
Collection of words that can be categorised together. E.g. "Religion = light, rise, followers, promise".
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Synonyms
Words that have similar meanings.
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Stream of consciouness
Writing down whatever is coming to your brain with no regards to grammar or rules of writing.
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Symbolic Sign
A sign that is symbolic. The Crucifixion is symbolic of Christianity.
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Serif Text.
Text that is dyslexic friendly.
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Tautology
Words that are together yet have the same meaning.
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Turn-taking
Listening and talking in turns.
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Transacational
Speech that is used to acquire goods or services.
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Tag Questions
A smaller question at the end of a statement. E.g. "Do you agree?" "Am I right?". It could also be rhetorical E.g. "Won't you?".
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Typography
The visual appearance of word print, size, columns, underlining, italics etc.
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Utterances
Anything that is said, actual speech.
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Valediction
Words used to end a coversation. E.g. "Thank You" or "Bye"
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Vague Language
This softens the impact of utterances, normally one word. E.g. "something" or "like".
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Vocative
When you are speaking directly to a person.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Changing the way you speak to accommodate the context.

Back

Accommodation Theory

Card 3

Front

Words used to describe. - before or after the subject.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Expected responses.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

When the proper noun has been used initially and then a pronoun is used to refer back to it. E.g. "David Cameron said..." "His intial offer was..."

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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