ENGB1 theorists

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weak expletives, empty adjectives, hedge, tag questions, bilingual`
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believes that tag questions are actually used by females as a method of being polite
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O'Barr and Atikins
the features identified by Lakoff = powerless language
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females hedge five times more than males
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Zimmerman and West
96% of interruptions made by males
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Shuttlewood (females)
polite, cooperative, hesitant, talk more, ask questions
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Shuttlewood (males)
swear more, dont talk about emotions, insult each other, speak with authority.
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males swear more
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Deborah Tannen
Status vs Support, Independance vs intimacy, advice vs understanding, information vs feelings, orders vs proposals, conflict vs compromise
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Power - Fairclough stages
1) synthetic personalisation 2) 'Members resources' 3) building the consumer
10 of 17
use of euphenisms is common in adverts
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Coulthard and Sinclair
initiation - response - feedback = common classroom interaction
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initially discovered the idea of face
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Levinson and Brown
built on this with the idea of politeness theories - positive and negative face. Why different types of politeness are used
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Levinson and Brown - type of politeness depends on three variables::
social distance + power distance + degree of imposition
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Holmes and Stubb (small talk)
believe it is critical in a workplace as it allows mroe powerful participants to exert their power in a friendly manner. - a repressive discourse strategy
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Max Atkinson
'claptraps' three most common features of speeches 1) lists of three 2) contrating pairs 3) positive evaluation of audience
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believes that tag questions are actually used by females as a method of being polite

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O'Barr and Atikins


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Zimmerman and West


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