Energy Security

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Define 'Energy Security'
Energy security means access to reliable and affordable sources. A country with energy surplus e.g. Russia has energy security, whereas a country with an energy deficit e.g. the USA has energy insecurity.
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What is meant by 'Energy Mix'?
The range of sources a country or area uses to provide themselves with energy.
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Where does the USA rely on for the majority of their oil imports? Why would this make them vulnerable?
Middle East- terrorist attacks on the US e.g. 9/11 have been linked back to the Middle East, there has also been conflict in the past with Russia (Cold War)
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How much did the price of a barrel of oil rise during the years 2006- 2008?
$60-$140
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What percentage of global energy is consumed by the USA?
21.3%
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What is the problem with relying on fossil fuels?
They are non-renewable and therefore will eventually run out.
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Why does access to energy vary around the world?
Resources are not evenly distributed, sources vary in terms of ease of exploitation, technology needed to exploit these sources in not equally available and the demand for energy varies from country to country.
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What are the 3 'energy worlds'?
Energy rich countries- vast surpluses of supply over demand (Saudi Arabia), energy poor countries- energy poverty, demand exceeds internal supply (UK) and energy neutral countries- demand and supply are balanced (Brazil)
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How can a country become energy secure?
Self sufficiency, sustainable energy mix, energy efficiency and affordability for consumers.
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What are energy pathways?
Routes along which energy sources are transported from producer to consumer.
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What are energy nodes?
Major sources of primary energy located in energy rich countries e.g. the gas fields in Russia
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What factors increase energy insecurity?
Disruption of energy pathways and supply, power of energy players controlling supply, need to exploit less accessible and more expensive sources and rising demand outstripping supply.
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What makes energy pathways vulnerable?
Political instability, disputes over the ownership of energy resources (e.g. disputes in Russia about prices caused them to cut off gas supplies to Ukraine, which then affected France and Germany), terrorism, sudden prices rises and natural disasters
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What are choke points?
Areas where the risk of disruption is highest e.g. Straits of Hormuz
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Name 3 examples of renewable energy sources.
Solar, wind and hydrological power.
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What is fracking?
A new method to extract natural gas from underground that involves cracking rocks. However it has been linked to groundwater pollution and minor earthquake generation.
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Who are the 6 major players in global energy supply?
TNCs e.g. BP, OPEC/GECF, pressure groups, intergovernmental organisations, consumers and national governments.
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What will determine the growth in the rate of demand for global energy?
Population growth, rate of global economic growth and rising living standard, the rate of economic development in the BRICS and the degree to which demands in energy poor countries are met.
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What are the main uncertainties concerning future energy security?
Whether or not to use nuclear power, size of undiscovered gas reserves, future rate of increase in energy demand, level of future dependence on fossil fuels and scale of switch to renewable forms of energy.
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Name 4 responses to increasing demands for energy.
Business as usual- continue looking for new fossil fuels reserves, switch to renewable- bio-fuels, wind and solar power, making greater use of nuclear energy and increasing energy efficiency through methods like energy conservation
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What possible conflicts may be caused due to geopolitical tensions?
Energy rich countries will dominate the energy poor e.g. over prices, the degree to which powerful nations are gaining hold of energy resources in LEDCs e.g. China and Africa and the promotion of bio-fuels causing an increase in food prices.
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What are the '5 energy R's'?
REDUCE overall energy consumption, REJECT environmentally damaging and polluting energy sources, RESEARCH more sustainable and affordable sources, RECYCLE waste and convert it into energy and REAFFIRM that nuclear power is vital in closing the gap
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Card 2

Front

What is meant by 'Energy Mix'?

Back

The range of sources a country or area uses to provide themselves with energy.

Card 3

Front

Where does the USA rely on for the majority of their oil imports? Why would this make them vulnerable?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How much did the price of a barrel of oil rise during the years 2006- 2008?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What percentage of global energy is consumed by the USA?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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