Chemistry

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  • Created by: Lamide
  • Created on: 19-05-13 12:10
What are the building blocks of chemistry
Atoms and elements
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What do atoms contain
protons, neutrons and electrons
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What happens when elements react
They produce compounds
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What are all substances made out of
Atoms
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What is an element
A substance that is made of only one sort of atom
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How many elements are there
There are about 100 different elements
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Where are elements shown
In the periodic table
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What do groups contain
Elements with similar properties.
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How are atoms of each element are represented by
by a chemical symbol
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What does O and Na represent
Oxygen and Sodium
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What do atoms have
a small central nucleus
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What is the small central nucleus made of
protons and neutrons and around which there are electrons
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Electrical charges of protons neutrons and electrons
+1, 0, –1
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In an atom...
the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus.
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What is the charge of an atom
There is no overall charge
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All atoms of a particular element have...
the same number of protons.
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Atoms of different elements have...
different numbers of protons.
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What is the atomic number
The number of protons in an atom of an element
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What is the mass number
The sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom
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What do electrons occupy
Particular energy levels
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Each electron...
in an atom is at a particular energy level (in a particular shell)
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What do the electrons in an atom occupy
the lowest available energy levels (innermost available shells).
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What do elements in the same group in the periodic table have. What do these elements have in common.
They have the same number of electrons in their highest energy level (outer electrons). They have similar chemical properties.
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What are the group 0 elements
called the noble gases.
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Why are the noble gases unreactive
because their atoms have stable arrangements of electrons.
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How many electrons do the noble gases have on their outer energy level
eight electrons in their outer energy level, except for helium, which has only two electrons.
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What happens when elements react
their atoms join with other atoms to form compounds.
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What does forming compounds involve
This involves giving, taking or sharing electrons to form ions or molecules.
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What are ions
Compounds formed from metals and non-metals
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What are compounds formed from metals and non-metals consist of
Ions
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What are compounds formed from non-metals consist of
Molecules
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What are molecules
Compounds formed from non-metals
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In molecules, how are the atoms held together
By covalent bonds
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What are covalent bonds
When molecules in the atoms are held together
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How are positive ions formed
When metals lose electrons
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What happens when metals loose electrons
Positive ions are formed
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What happens when non-metals gain electrons
They form negative ions.
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How are negative ions formed
when non-metals gain electrons
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How can chemical reactions be represented
by word equations or by symbol equations.
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Give a statement about atoms
No atoms are lost or made during a chemical reaction so the mass of the products equals the mass of the reactants.
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Knowledge and understanding of masses in chemical reactions is limited to what.
The conservation of mass.
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What do rocks provide
Essential building materials
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Give an example of a naturally occurring resource
Limestone
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What does limestone provide
It provides a starting point for the manufacture of cement and concrete.
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What is limestone needed for
buildings
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Give examples of some building materials
to limestone, cement and concrete.
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What is limestone mainly composed of
Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3),
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How is limestone gotten out of the ground and what can it be used for
it is quarried and can be used as a building material.
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How can calcium carbonate be decomposed
by heating (thermal decomposition)
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What happens once calcium carbonate is decomposed
calcium oxide and carbon dioxide are made
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How do the carbonates of magnesium, copper, zinc, calcium and sodium decompose on heating
In a similar way
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Knowledge and understanding of metal carbonates is limited to...
metal carbonates decomposing on heating to give carbon dioxide and the metal oxide.
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Give a fact about the carbonates in group 1
that not all carbonates of metals in Group 1 of the periodic table decompose at the temperatures reached by a Bunsen burner.
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What reacts together to produce calcium hydroxide
Calcium oxide reacts with water
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What is calcium hydroxide
It is an alkali
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What can calcium hydroxide be used for
in the neutralisation of acids.
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How is calcium carbonate produced
By having a solution of calcium hydroxide in water (limewater) reacting with carbon dioxide
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What is lime water used to test
for carbon dioxide.
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Carbon dioxide turns...
Limewater cloudy
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How is carbon dioxide, a salt and water produced
When carbonates react with acids
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How is limestone damaged
By acid rain
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The reaction of carbonates with acids is limited to...
the reactions of magnesium, copper, zinc, calcium and sodium.
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How is cement made
When limestone is heated with clay
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How is mortar made
When cement is mixed with sand
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How is concrete made
By mixing sand and aggregate together
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What are ores
are naturally occurring rocks that provide an economic starting point for the manufacture of metals.
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What is an iron ore used to make
It is used to make iron and steel.
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What metal can be easily extracted
Copper
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What is an advantage of copper
It can be easily extracted
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What is happening to the copper rich ores
They are becoming scarce so new methods of extracting copper are being developed.
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What are advantages of aluminium and titanium
They are useful metals
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What are disadvantages of aluminium and titanium
They are expensive to produce.
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How can an alloy be made
By mixing metals together
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What happens when metals are mixed together
They make alloys
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How are metal ores obtained
by mining
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What does miming involve
involve digging up and processing large amounts of rock.
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What do ores contain
They contain enough metal to make it economical to extract the metal. The
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What happens to the economics of extraction
It may change over time
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What are examples of unreactive metals
Gold
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Where are unreactive metals found
They are found in the Earth as the metal itself
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What are most metals found as
They are found as compounds that require chemical reactions to extract the metal.
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What is less reactive than carbon
Metals
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How can metals be extracted
From their oxides by reduction with carbon,
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Give an example when metals can be extracted from their oxides by reduction with carbon
iron oxide is reduced in the blast furnace to make iron.
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Knowledge of reduction is limited to what
the removal of oxygen.
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Give an example of a metal that is more reactive than carbon
Aluminium
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How is aluminum extracted
by electrolysis of molten compounds.
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What is a disadvantage of electrolysis
Large amounts of energy are used in the extraction of these metals makes them expensive.
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How can copper be extracted from the copper rich ores
by heating the ores in a furnace (smelting).
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How can copper be purified
By electrolysis
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What is the supply of copper rich ores
It is limited
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How is copper extracted from its ores
by chemical processes that involve heat or electricity
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What is happening to the copper rich ores
They are being depleted and traditional mining and extraction have major environmental impacts.
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What a scientists trying to do with the extraction of copper
They are trying to research new ways of extracting copper from low-grade ores are being researched to limit the environmental impact of traditional mining.
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How can copper be extracted
phytomining, or by bioleaching.
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What does phytomining do
It uses plants to absorb metal compounds and that the plants are burned to produce ash that contains the metal compounds
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What does bioleaching do
It uses bacteria to produce leachate solutions that contain metal compounds.
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How can copper can be obtained from solutions of copper salts
by electrolysis or by displacement using scrap iron.
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What happens during electrolysis
positive ions move towards the negative electrode.
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Can aluminium and titanium be extrracted from theioxides by reduction with carbon.
No
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Why are current methods of extraction are expensive
■Because there are many stages in the processes ■Because large amounts of energy are needed.
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Why should we recycle metals
because extracting them uses limited resources and is expensive in terms of energy and effects on the environment.
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How much iron does iron from a blast furnace contain
96% iron.
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What do the impurities do to the iron
The impurities make it brittle and so it has limited uses.
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Knowledge of uses of blast furnace iron is limited to what
To the blast furnace iron being used as cast iron because of its strength in compression.
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What is most iron converted to
Steels
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What are steels and what is steal a mixture of
Alloys. they are mixtures of iron with carbon.
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What do some steels contain
Other metals
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What can alloys be designed to have
properties for specific use
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What are advantages of low carbon steels
They are easily shaped,
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What are advantages of high carbon steels
They are hard
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What are advantages of stainless steal
They are resistant to corrosion.
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What are most metals in everyday use
Alloys
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What are disadvantages of pure copper, gold, iron and aluminium
They are too soft for many uses
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What happens to pure copper, gold, iron and aluminium
They are mixed with small amounts of similar metals to make them harder for everyday use.
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What are the transition metals
The elements in the central block of the periodic table
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What are the elements in the central block of the periodic table
the transition metals
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What are the advantages of the transition metals
They are good conductors of heat and electricity
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What can transition metals be used to do
and can be bent or hammered into shape. They are useful as structural materials and for making things that must allow heat or electricity to pass through them easily.
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What is copper useful for
electrical wiring and plumbing.
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What are the properties of copper
■ is a good conductor of electricity and heat ■ It can be bent but is hard enough to be used to make pipes or tanks ■ It does not react with water.
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Why are aluminium and titanium useful materials
Because it has a low density and is resistance to corrosion
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What is crude oil derived from
From an ancient biomass found in rocks.
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What can be done to crude oil
It can be fractionally distilled
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What can some of the fractions be used as
Fuels
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What are biofuels produced from
Plant Material
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Where can fuels come from
From renewable and non renewable sources
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what is crude oil
a mixture of a very large number of compounds.
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What does a mixture consists of
two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together.
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What are the chemical properties of a mixture like
The chemical properties of each substance in the mixture are unchanged.
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How can the substances in a mixture be separated
by physical methods including distillation.
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What are some examples of alkenes
methane, ethane and propane.
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What do most compounds of crude oil consists of
molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only (hydrocarbons).
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What are alkanes. What is their general formula.
saturated hydrocarbons CnH2n+2.
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How can alkene molecules be represented
C2H6 H H I I ■ H –– C –– C –– H I I H H
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What does a line represent on a hydrocarbon diagram
Covalent Bonds
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What do fractions contain
molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms,
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How does fractional distillation work
by evaporating the oil and allowing it to condense at a number of different temperatures.
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What do the properties of hydrocarbons depend on
on the size of their molecules.
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What properties influence how hydrocarbons are used as fuels.
on the size of their molecules.
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Knowledge of trends in properties of hydrocarbons is limited to what.
■ boiling points ■ viscosity ■ flammability.
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What do most including coal contain
carbon and/or hydrogen and may also contain some sulfur.
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What are the gases released into the atmosphere when a fuel is burned
carbon dioxide, water (vapour), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen.
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What may also be released into the atmosphere when a fuel is burned
Solid particles (particulates)
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How are oxides of nitrogen formed
At high temperatures
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What may solid particles contain .
soot (carbon) and unburnt fuels
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What happens in the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels
It releases energy
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What happens during combustion
the carbon and hydrogen in the fuels are oxidised.
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What causes acid rain
Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen
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What causes global warming
carbon dioxide
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What causes global dimming
Solid particles
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What can be done to reduce the effects of acid rain. Give examples.
Sulfur can be removed from fuels before they are burned, for example in vehicles. Sulfur dioxide can be removed from the waste gases after combustion, for example in power stations.
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What is an example of a biofuel
Biodiesel and ethanol
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What are biofuels produced from
Plant material
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What is an example of an unsaturated hydrocarbon
ethene.
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How can unsaturated hydrocarbons be made
Fractions from the distillation of crude oil can be broken down (cracked) to make smaller molecules
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What can unsaturated hydrocarbons be used to make
polymers and ethene and ethanol
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How is ethanol made
By fermentation
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What is crude oil used to produce
crude oil is used to produce fuels and chemicals, and that it is a limited resource.
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What are hydrocarbons cracked to produce
to produce smaller, more useful molecules.
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What does cracking involve
This process involves heating the hydrocarbons to vaporise them. The vapours are either passed over a hot catalyst or mixed with steam and heated to a very high temperature so that thermal decomposition reactions then occur.
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What are the products of cracking
alkanes and alkenes.
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What is the general formula for alkenes
CnH2n.
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What does two lines represent on a hydrocarbon diagram
Double bonds
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What is the formula for unsaturated hydrocarbons
C3H6
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Card 3

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Card 4

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Card 5

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