F215 Definitions

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  • Created by: Imogen
  • Created on: 05-06-13 13:33
Lattice Enthalpy
The enthalpy change that accompanies the formation of 1 mole of a solid ionic compound from its constituent gaseous ions under standard conditions
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Standard Enthalpy Change of Formation
The enthalpy change when 1 mole of a compound is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states under standard conditions
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Standard Enthalpy Change of Atomisation
The enthalpy change when 1 mole of an element forms 1 mole of its gaseous atoms under standard conditions
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The First Ionisation Energy
The energy required to remove 1 mole of electrons from 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of gaseous ions with a +1 charge
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The First Electron Affinity
The energy required to add 1 mole of gaseous electrons to 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of gaseous ions with a 1- charge
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Standard Enthalpy Change of Solution
The enthalpy change when 1 mole of a compound dissolves completely in water under standard conditions
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Standard Enthalpy Change of Hydration
The enthalpy change when 1 mole of gaseous ions dissolves in water to form 1 mole of aqueous ions under standard conditions
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Entropy
A measure of the degree of disorder in a system
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Standard Entropy Change of Reaction
The entropy change that accompanies a reaction taking place in the molar quantities expressed in a chemical equation under standard conditions.
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The Free Energy Change: ΔG = ΔH - TΔS
A reaction can only take place spontaneously when ΔG < 0
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Standard Conditions
298 K/25C, 1 atm pressure and all solutions at 1 mol dm-3
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Rate of Reaction
The change in concentration of a reactant or product over time
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Initial Rate of Reaction
The change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit of time when t=0
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The Order of a Reactant
The power to which the concentration of a reactant is raised in the rate equation
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Rate Constant
The constant, k, which links the rate of reaction and the concentration of reactants (which are raised to the power of their orders)
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Half-Life
The time it takes for the concentration of a reactant to decrease by half
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Bronsted-Lowry Acid
A proton donor
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Bronsted-Lowry Base
A proton acceptor
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Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
Species that transform into each other on the addition or removal of a proton
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Acid Dissociation Constant, Ka
The extent to which an acid dissociates in solution
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What are the relationships linking pH and [H+]?
pH = -log[H+] [H+] = 10^(-pH)
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What are the relationships between Ka and pKa?
pKa = -log(Ka) Ka= 10^(-pKa)
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Strong Acid
A strong acid dissociates completely in solution
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Weak Acid
A weak acid partially dissociates in solution
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What Ka/pKa value will a strong acid have?
Large Ka value, small pKa value
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What Ka/pKa values will a weak acid have?
Small Ka value, large pKa value
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Buffer Solution
A mixture that minimises fluctuations in pH on the addition of small amounts of acid/alkali
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Standard Enthalpy Change of Neutralisation
The enthalpy change that occurs when 1 mole of water is formed from the neutralisation of an acid by an alkali under standard conditions
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Standard Electrode Potential
The e.m.f value of a half cell compared to a standard hydrogen half cell under standard conditions
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Transition Elements
d-block elements that can form at least 1 ion with an incomplete d sub-shell
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Ligand
A molecule or ion that can donate a pair of electrons to a central transition metal ion to form a coordinate bond
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Complex Ion
A transition metal ion bonded to one or more ligands by coordinate bonds
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Coordination Number
The number of coordinate bonds in a complex ion
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Stereoisomers
Stereoisomers are molecules with the same structural formula but a different arrangement of atoms in space
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The enthalpy change when 1 mole of a compound is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states under standard conditions

Back

Standard Enthalpy Change of Formation

Card 3

Front

The enthalpy change when 1 mole of an element forms 1 mole of its gaseous atoms under standard conditions

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The energy required to remove 1 mole of electrons from 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of gaseous ions with a +1 charge

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The energy required to add 1 mole of gaseous electrons to 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of gaseous ions with a 1- charge

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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