energy and ecosystems

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define the term community
the different populations of species that live in a habitat
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define the term decomposers
microbes, bacteria and fungi that obtain nutrients from dead organisms and feaces. They complete the process of decomposition started by detritovores
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define the term ecosystem
a natural unit of livign (biotic) components in a given area, as well as th enon living (abiotic) factors with which they interact
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define the term habitat
the particular area occupied by a population. That is, the place where an organism lives. It has biotic and abitotic features wihch seperate it form other habitiats
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what is the name given to the study of the flow of energy thorough an ecosystem
ecological energetics
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what do producers do
Trap solar energy and maufacture sugars from simple raw materials by the process of phhotosynthesis
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what is the term given to each feeding level
trophic
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how is energy passed though the ecosystem
it is eaten
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how does energy leave the system
as heat
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how is ebergy lost at each trophic level
resperation , excretion of waste products
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why is the food chain limited to 4-5 trophic levels
loss of energy at each level
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on death of the producers, how is further energy extracted
By detritivores and decomposers feeding as saprobionts
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what is grss primary productivity
the rate at which products eg glucose are formed
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GBP- __________ = net production
resperation
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what is the name given to the stuff left over after resepration
net primary productivity
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what does this represnt
the food avalible to all primary consumers
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what is secondary productivity
that rate at which consumers accumilate energy in the form of cells or tissues
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why arent herbiovres able to eat all the vegitation avalible to them
som eis hard like wood, some below ground
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Why do cows not absorb all the energy they eat
contists of cellulose, not all cellusoe digested
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define the term biomass
the mass of living material present at a given time
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define the term climax community
a community that has reached equilibrium with its envrionment and no further chang eoccurs
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define the term sucession
the change in the structure and composioin of species of a community over time
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what does it mean by herbivores have a lower secondary productivity than carnivores
carnivores ar emore efficient at energy conservation than herbivores
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why is this
their protien rich diet is more effiecntly digested
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what oercentage of energy intake is lost in feaces in carnivores
20%
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in herbivores
60%
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what does primary sucession refer to
the introduction of species into an area that has not previously supported a community eg bare rock
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what is secondary sucsessoin
the reintroductoin of orgnisms to a habiti previously occupied
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WHy might this habitat have been unihabited
fire, tree forestation
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what are the first organisms to colonis bare rock
algea and lichins
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What are these species called
poineer species, forming a pioneer community
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what do lichins do to the rock
erode it
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what else contributes to the formatoin of primitive soil
weathering of rock, accumilation of dead and decomposing ranic material
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what then appears
mosses, as soil develops grasses become esthablished
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what comes next
shrubs, trees
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In secondary sucessoin, how does a community develop
seeds, spores and organs od vegetatibe reproductoin remain in the soil and disperal of plants and migraiton of animals assist colonisation of the habitiat
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what human interferants can prevent the development of the climax community
grazing by sheep, heather mooreland managment by controlled burning for goruse shooting, farming of land, deforestation and soil erosion
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define the term decomposers

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microbes, bacteria and fungi that obtain nutrients from dead organisms and feaces. They complete the process of decomposition started by detritovores

Card 3

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define the term ecosystem

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Card 4

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define the term habitat

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Card 5

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what is the name given to the study of the flow of energy thorough an ecosystem

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