What's a resource?
any part of environment that can be exploited by humans to meet their needs.
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What are renewable resources?
Have a natural rate of availability & yield, a continuous flow that can be consumed without endangering future consumption. aka flow/income resources
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x7 examples of renewable energy
solar, hydroelectric, geothermal, wave, tidal, wind, biomass sources
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What are non-renewable resources?
Have evolved over time, slow formation rate, use depletes stock, can't be replaced within human lifespan, process takes millions years. aka finite/stock/capital resources
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x4 examples of non-renewable
fossil fuels - oil, gas, coal. Nuclear
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What are critical renewables?
resources from forests/plants/animal waste, requires constant management.
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What are non-critical renewables?
everlasting resources such as tides/waves/running water/solar power.
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What is sustainable development?
Development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of future generations.
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How can we achieve sustainable development? x4
Manage critical resources. Ensure energy available to maintain quality of life. Accessible & affordable. Doesn't destroy environment.
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What's an energy resource?
any part of environment that could be used for energy production (tree's).
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What's an energy reserve?
The proportion of the resource that could be exploited under existing economic conditions & with available technology.
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What are recoverable reserves?
Amount of mineral likely to be extracted for commercial use within a certain time period & at a certain level of technology.
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What are speculative reserves?
Deposits that may exist in a terrain where no exploration has taken place yet e.g. Earths crust/Ice caps.
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What is energy security?
access to reliable & affordable sources of energy e.g. Russia secure. UK insecure - import energy sources.
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What is primary energy?
sources in raw form such as oil/ natural gas/ running water. Used to produce secondary energy (burning).
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What is secondary energy?
manufactured sources of power such as electricity or petroleum.
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Why has demand for consumption grown dramatically? Aspect 1
Technology - demand for oil become higher than coal, combustion & jet engines developed.
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Aspect 2?
Rapid Population Growth - Disposable income, more vehicles, more goods.
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Aspect 3?
Economic development - wealth, mobility, services, labour-saving devices in homes, more goods.
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What's an energy mix?
The different sources of energy used by house-holds, industry, commerce, in electricity generation.
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UK energy sources? (% gas, solar)
Mainly finites - oil, gas, coal, nuclear. 34.6% of energy consumption gas, solar 0.15%.
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Impacts of energy consumption? x3
Quickly using up sources, price will rise as demand increases, pollutes atmosphere.
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Future for UK? x3 aspects
finites run out, become unaffordable, lower quality of life.
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What are fossil fuels?
oil, natural gas, coal - formed from plant & animal remains in previous geological periods. All non-renewable sources of energy.
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What percentage of oil & gas combined do UK use?
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By how much has coal decreased since 1990?
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What's UK's target for renewable sources by 2020?
15% (on target)
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What is energy poverty?
Having less energy than is required to meet demand.
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What % of world have no access to electricity?
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How many people rely on traditional biomass for cooking and heating?
2.4 billion.
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What are problems of Biomass?
Smoke from stoves kills 2.5 million women & children per year from lung conditions.
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Why can't they afford electricity? (cycle)
Spend day collecting fuel, no time for education, can't get jobs/money, stay poor, have children who are poor, cycle restarts.
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What's an energy gap?
The difference between energy supply & demand.
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Worlds largest tar sands? Problems?
Canada, opencast mining is energy intensive, produces many greenhouse gases, leaves waste & destruction, removes woodlands, lakes of toxic waste water.
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What do International Energy Agency predict in 2030?
Will need 60% more energy than in 2002, fossil fuels will meet most of these needs.
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How can you access oil reserves?
Drilling in sea using rigs.
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What are biofuels?
ethanol from plants - sugarcane/barley.
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How many barrels per day do Kuwait and Saudi Arabia produce?
2 1/2 million oil barrels, Saudi Arabia have 1/4 worlds known reserves.
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How is oil formed?
Remains of dead microscopic sea creatures on sea floor.
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Natural gas formed?
Same time as oil but lighter so lies on top.
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Advantages of gas?
Cleaner - virtually no sulfur dioxide, less than half CO2 by other fossils.
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Coal formed?
Created when forests growing in shallow swamps during Carboniferous period died, compressed by sediment & preserved in seams of rock.
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Advantages of Uranium?
Low output of greenhouse gases, almost no sulfur dioxide produced.
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Who has 25% of worlds oil reserves?
Middle East, Saudi Arabia.
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How is oil transported?
By pipeline for short distances & ocean tanks for long. Huge enviro problems.
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How is natural gas transported?
Flammable, only transported by pipeline/ expensive liquefied gas.
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How much of worlds total energy consumption do USA and Russia consume?
USA 27.2%, Russia 25.7%
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How long will coal last at current production?
150 yrs
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What are geopolitics?
The study of ways political decisions & processes affect use of space & resources.
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What does OPEC stand for?
Organization, Petroleum, Exporting, Countries
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What is their aim?
To co-ordinate & unify petroleum policies of 'Member Countries'. Ensure stabilize of oil markets to secure an efficient, economic & regular supply of petroleum.
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Who are the 12 members?
Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Nigeria, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arabs Emirates, Venezuela.
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Why do they work together?
Avoid competing means sold at same price, won't need to increase/decrease.
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What's a TNC
Transnational corporation, companies operate in 2+ countries, may have headquarters in one country but produce their goods in another.
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Out of the top 20 worldwide companies, how many are fuel?
9 out of top 20
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Who is number 2? Who is number 6?
Royal Dutch Shell, BP
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Renewable impacts of energy production? x5
Wind farms visually polluting, burning biomass causes deforestation, release of CO2. Clearing tree's damages ecological balance, desertification.
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Non renewable impacts?
Carbon & sulfur compounds into atmosphere when burnt & transporting, oil spills.
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What is globalisation?
Close economic interdependence between leading nations of world in trade, investment & cooperative commercial relationships.
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What is biomass?
Energy from organic materials like wood/plants/animal waste/general waste.
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Advantages of Biomass? x4
lower levels of pollution than fossil fuels, bio ethanol, self-sufficient, renewable source.
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Diadvantages of biosmass x6
reduces food supply (soybeans), increases food shortage & malnourishment, increase global food prices, uses agricultural land, deforestation/soil erosion, biodiversity loss/nutrient leaching.
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What is solar power?
Energy direct from sun can be used to provide heat & generate electricity.
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Advantages of solar power? x5
reduces running costs of buildings, infinite supply & no pollution, free (excluding set up costs), can be used in poorer/remote areas of world, can power small items e.g.calculators.
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Disadvantages of solar power x4
Output varies with light intensity, reduced efficiency out of sunlight, cost of solar arrays high increasing energy bills, doesn't match output of power stations (fossil fuels).
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What is wind energy?
Moving air turns a propeller-driven generator to produce electricity, wind turns blades which spins a shaft connected o a generator & makes electricity.
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Advantages of wind energy? x7
pollution free, doesn't contribute to GHG/global warming, wind blows strongest in winter when demand is highest, wind farms don't take up much space, sustainable, price decrease in future, cheaper than nuclear.
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Disadvantages of wind energy? x7
Gas is cheaper, not aesthetically pleasing, property prices increase, large areas produce little energy, noisy, endangers wildlife, disrupts migration pattern of birds. 700 wind turbines=1 nuclear power station.
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How is wave energy produced?
Moving water flows through a barrage, releasing energy. Appears in different forms e.g. pelamis wave power system.
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Advantages of wave energy?
Infinite, reliable, abundant in UK, easy to predict peak energy, reassures businesses max profit, many ways to harness, none harm/affect land.
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Disadvantages of wave energy?
Hard to find locations with constant current, some ways visually polluting & noisy, some affect ecosystem around them e.g.migrating fish, wave farms can disrupt shipping lanes.
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How is tidal energy produced?
Moving water flows through a barrage, releasing energy.
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Advantages? x3
Renewable, can't be depleted, very efficient, doesn't contribute to climate change.
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Disadvantages of tidal?
expensive, could cause wetland flooding damaging habitats, could have adverse effects on spawning fish e.g.salmon.
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3 key elements where we can conserve energy?
Homes, workplace, transport.
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How to reduce heat loss in homes? x6
roof insulation, block chimney, triple glazing, cavity wall insulation, thick carpets with underlay, stuff mateerial at door seal.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are renewable resources?


Have a natural rate of availability & yield, a continuous flow that can be consumed without endangering future consumption. aka flow/income resources

Card 3


x7 examples of renewable energy


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are non-renewable resources?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


x4 examples of non-renewable


Preview of the front of card 5
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