Endogenous pacemakers

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Hawkins and Armstrong-Esther
Found that shift work altered nurses' sleep/wake cycles, but not their temperature cycles, suggesting that different body clocks regulate different circadian rhythms
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Green and Giletter
Found that recording electrodes picked up rhythmic bursts of activity from the SCN that varied according to a 24.5 hour cycle. these rhythms persisted even when the hypothalamus was surgically isolated from the rest of the brain
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Ralph et al
took the SCN out of genetically abnormal hamsters with a circadian cycle of only 20 hours. transplanting them into rates witht the usual 24-hour cycle. their cycle shortened to 20 hours suggesting that the SCN is the main endogenous pacemaker
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Morgan
found that removing the SCN from hamsters caused their circadian rhythm to disappear, but when the SCN cells were transplanted in, the rhythm returned, again showing the central role of the SCN as an endogenous pacemaker
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Yamazaki
Found that circadian rhythms persist in isolated lungs, livers and other tissues grown in culture dishes not under control of the SCN. This suggests that most cells and tissues of the body are capable of activity on a circadian basis
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Green and Giletter

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Found that recording electrodes picked up rhythmic bursts of activity from the SCN that varied according to a 24.5 hour cycle. these rhythms persisted even when the hypothalamus was surgically isolated from the rest of the brain

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Ralph et al

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Morgan

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Yamazaki

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