Endo

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What is the initial immune response (innate immune system)?
Pathogen enters - macrophages release cytokines - stickiness of blood vessels change to allow cells to crawl trhough - accumulation of cells and fluid at site of infection cause inflammation (redness, swelling, heat)
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What is occurring during inflammation?
Recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection - cytokines chemo-tactically attract other immune cells
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How does the innate immune system activate the adaptive immune system?
Innate response increases flow of lymph to site of infection - antigen presenting cells carried away from site to lymphoid tissue - lymphocytes activated - initiating adaptive immune response
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What is antigen presentation / antigen presenting cells?
Main APC dendritic cell - covered in projections which interlock with lymphoid cells - present antigen to them
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What is the adaptive immune system?
Specific, targeted immune response to previous exposure - T and B cell reliant (lymphocytes)
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What is cell mediated immunity?
Does not involve antibodies - activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific T cells and cytokine release
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What are helper T cells?
Assist with maturation of B cells into plasma cells, activation of cytotoxic T cells and macrophages - express CD4 glycoprotein on surface
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What are cytotoxic T cells?
Destroy virally infected cells - express CD8 glycoprotein on surface
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What are memory T cells?
Persist long-term after an infection is resolved - quickly expand to large numbers of effector T cells upon re-exposure to antigen
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What are regulatory T cells?
Shut down cell-mediated immunity towards the end of a reaction
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What are the two signals (co-stimulation) required to activate a T cell?
1) A foreign molecule must be present that can bind specifically to the antigen receptor of T cell. 2) This antigen must be displayed on the surface of an antigen presenting cell
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What do cytokines do?
Messenger molecules - involved in innate immunity and inflammation - involved in adaptive immunity - involved in haematopoiesis
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Card 2

Front

What is occurring during inflammation?

Back

Recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection - cytokines chemo-tactically attract other immune cells

Card 3

Front

How does the innate immune system activate the adaptive immune system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is antigen presentation / antigen presenting cells?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the adaptive immune system?

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