End of the Cold War

What is the range of the ** - 20 nuclear missiles?
600 - 5000 km mid range
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where did the USSR place them in 1976?
In central europe
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In response what did NATO threaten to do by 1983
If an Arms Agreement could not be met Pershing and Cruise missiles would be placed on the content
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What did Reagan suggest in 1981?
Both sides destroy their existing medium range nuclear weapons
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Why did the USSR reject this?
It would mean the USA wouldn't have destroyed its nuclear arrangements pre-deployment
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What ieliminated the Soviet advantage?
The placing of Pershing and Cruise missiles in the FRG, Britain belgium, the Netherlands and Italy
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What happened in April 1978?
A coup was mounted by the local communist party against the Afghan monarchy.
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What did the new Afgahan regime do?
embark on major reforms to the countryside which enraged conservative Islamic groups.
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What worried the Kremiln about afganistan?
Isalamic fundementalism in the southern states of Russia
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Waht did Moscow overall fear for the USSR?
Global encirclement
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when did USSR troops enter Afgahnistan?
24th December 1978
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When did The USSR execute president Amin?
27th December 1978
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Who replaced Amin?
Babrak Kamel
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How many Soviet troops were deployed in Afghanistan?
100,000
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What 2 problems did the USSR face?
Lack of support for Kamel, increasing rebel support+ Collapse of the Afgan Army.
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How much of Afgahnuistan did the USSR control?
1/5
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How many Mujahedin were there?
200,000
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How was the war unwinnable?
The Mujahadin had their bases in the mountains on the border with Pakistan + guerrilla tactics
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How did the USA respond?
Boycott of the 1980 Olympics in Moscow + Senate refused to ratify the SALT II treaty
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How did the US fund the Mujaheddin through Pakistan?
by sending them light-weight Ground to air missiles in 1986 to diminish Air superiority
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how did the PRC announce their denouncment of the invasion of Afganistan?
They agreed in May 1980 to send 4000 items of advanced military technology to the Mujaheddin
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Who else backed the USA?
Margret Thatcher (And the UK)
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Why were the FRG + France hesitent to denounce the Invasion?
They didn't want an end to Detente
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What did many other European countries liken the invasion to?
The soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968
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What fraction of the Warsaw pact forces was made up by Poland?
1/3
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Why else was Poland vital the USSR?
it had the biggest satellite state pop = 36m
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What caused unrest in poland in 1980?
high oil prices = high food price + Economic depression in the west = depressed export markets + failure to modernise
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Where did strikes break out?
Gdansk shipyard
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When did the Soviets recognise Solidarity as a trade union?
August 1980
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By December where did the membership for solidaity stand?
9.4m
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Whnd was John Paul elected?
1978
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In October 1982 who declared martial law?
Jaruzelski
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In the Summer of 1980 what did Helmut Schmidt (FRG) puursade Bherznev?
To negotiate with the Us which led to the Madrid talk failures
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Whajt was the aim of the two chancellors of the FRG during this period?
Both Schimdt and then Khol wanted to still condemn the USSR but also maintain Ostpolitik
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In Jan 1981, what changed?
Ronald Reagan was elected president
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How much did Reagan increase defense spending on armaments by?
30%
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Who replaced Brezhnev in November 1982?
Yuri Andropov
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What was Star Wars (SDI)?
An anti ballistic missile shield made of laser armed satellites to protect against Russian missiles
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When was the Star Wars Progam anounced?
1983
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what happened on 1st September 1983 that increased tensions between east and west?
A Soviet Jet shot down a South Korean passenger aircraft. They killed 269 people 61 of whome were American
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What happened in the wake of the aircraft's destruction?
Reagan: "this was an act of unprecidented barbarism" Andropov: we cant do business with the US any longer
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What did Andropov fear in November?
That annually scheduled NATO exercises were cover for a nuclear attack
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Between February 1984 (Andropov's death) and April 1985 (his death) what did Chernenko achieve?
he reopened the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty
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Apart from the collapse of Detente what else did the USSR suffer from?
Global overstretch (Afghanistan) + stagnating economic model
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what was the COMECON economic model good at?
Heavy industry (coal and steel) + large productive units (cars +tractors)
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Where did the COMECON model fail?
couldn't adapt to the competitive prices of the western states
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Who proposed the idea of decentralizing the economy and giving more power to the factory mangers?
Liberman and Sikin
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what happened after the prauge Spring was suprressed in 1968?
Decentelization was discouraged
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Hwo much better was the US economy?
GNP = 63% larger
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What mad e the USSR particularly vulnerable to rising oil prices and the global depression of the 1980's?
A failure to modernise thier economy by developing new industries after the rising oil prices of 1973
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What was Peristroika?
Economic reconstruction to decentralize and deregulate the meanss of production distribution and exchange + incresing investment in technology + giving workers greater freedom and intensives to encorage harder work
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What was Glasnost?
After 1986 state censorship was eased and foreign broadcasts were admitted
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What did Glasnost achieve?
Investigative journalism = uncovered corruption in the Communist party (Subsidized shops + chauffeur driven cars) + Failures ad Chernobyl and the Afghan war
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What was formed in 1988-9 in the USSR?
The Democratic Union, the first opposition party of the Soviet Union.
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What happend to social freedom in the USSR?
books of former dissidents were published +churches, mosques and synagogues reopened
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What was elected in May 1989?
The Congress of the Peoples Deputies = critisised the govt and recognised differtn strands of socioty
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Why was the Congress of the peoples deputies the strongest force in Russia in 1990 -1
because it could effectively elect members of the supreme soviet.
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What happened to the ** - 20s in 1985?
April Gorbechev stops the increase in production + October Gorbechev beginds to reduce the number of ** - 20
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After failing to convince Reagan, at the Reykjavik conference in 1986, to drop the SDI plan what did Gorbachev accept?
To remove all mid range nuclear missiles at the Washington summit in 1987
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What did Gorbachev concede in 1988 to the UN?
Marxism + Leninism is not the ultimate truth
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In April 1988 protocols were signed by Afghanistan an Pakistan at Geneva with the USA and USSR as sponsers, what did they agree?
1. non intervention into internal affairs, 2. allow hostile militent goroups to train, 3. Afgahn refugees returned, 4. form 15th May 88 to 15th Feb 89 withdrawal of soviet troops
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What was the effect Gorbachev's "Common European home" speech on the 6th July 1989
The renunciation of the Brezhnev doctrine
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What did Gorbachev recommend to the Eastern Bloc leaders?
Follow the USSR's example of modernization
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In which states was the USSR's example followed?
Poland, Hungary and Bugaria experimented ith
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In which states was the USSR's example followed?
Poland, Hungary and Bulgaria experimented with economic and political liberalization
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Which Easter states rejected the idea of liberlisation?
the GDR Czechoslovakia and Romaniaand Albania were only compelled to reform by the situation in the GDR
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What were the consiqences of prices ricing by 200% in Poland
Solidarity was legalised and the government negotiated with them and the catholic church
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What did the Round Table agreements decide?
Solidarity was apolitical party allowed to win up to 35% of seats in the Sejm's lower house (approved by Gorbachev)
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On the 4th June Solidarity won 160/161 in the lower house and 92/100 in the upper house, how did the communists react?
They won all of their reserved seats with only a 25% turnout. On August 18th Solidarity led a coalition government with only 4 communists, that controled the Interior, Defense, Transport and the presidency (Jaruzelski)
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What was the Kremlin's reaction?
On the 16th Aigust Gorbichev made it clear the USSR would not back a communist regime in Poland.
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What happened after the Berlin Wall fell?
Solidarity expelled the Communists and reformed as the SDP
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In Hungary May 1988 who replaced kadar as PM?
MSZMP leader Grosz
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how did Gorbachev respond to this?
he welcomed it provide the socialists retained power
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After only winning 11% in March 1991 what did the MSZMP do?
Modernise and became a liefteing party (HSP) that returned to power in 1994 and was popular in 1996
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How did Conyism play a role in politics in Zhinkov's Bulgaria?
He promoted bhis falily to postions of power (paying them 500% that of other officials) + expulsiono of 200,000 ethnic Turks (Bulgarianisation)
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What happened in 9th November 1989?
Zhinkov forced to resign by Mladenov + elections in June 1990 + Communists turn into the BSP and win in 1994
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what was the intimidate cause of the GDR migration resurgence?
Hungary opening it's borders to Austria in August = 150,000 Germans flooding into the FRG
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On the 9th November what happeend in the GDR?
Honecker opened the Berlin border, allowing 20,000 GDR citizens with passports to cross
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What opposition existed in Czechoslavakia after the Prauge spring?
Carter 77 attempted to enforce the Helsinki accord baskets
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What was the immideate rttrigger of the Velvet Revelution?
Consessions of the gov't after economic modernisation in Hangay and Poland + A demonstation honoring the death of a student in WW2 turned into a protest
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What wasthe Civic Forum
A combenation of 12 opposition groups led by Vaclav Havel that demanded political change
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what happened in December?
Andamec resigned on the 7th and Vaclav took power on the 29th December
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what happened After Ceausescu's death?
The national Salvation Front (NSF) made up of leading communists was formed and won the general election in 1990 but was finally defeated in 1996
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In the local elections of February 1990, who won in the Baltic states?
Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia elected pro independence candidates (popular fronts)
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When did the Baltic states declare independence?
Lithuania + Estonia in March - Latvia in May - supported by Solidarity
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Between April 1990 and Jan 1991 how did Gorbechev react?
He sent in Soviet forces to crush deserters = 13 were killed in a TV station in Lithuania. They withdrew in January in the face of protest
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When did Boris Yeltsin, Cairmman of the Congress of the Peoples Deputies declare Russia a 'sovereign state'
12th July 1990
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What did the sovereignty grant the people of Russia?
It asserted its moral right to create it's own laws for itself above those of the Supreme Soviet + self determination
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

where did the USSR place them in 1976?

Back

In central europe

Card 3

Front

In response what did NATO threaten to do by 1983

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did Reagan suggest in 1981?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why did the USSR reject this?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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