Emulsions & Hydrogenation & Changing Planet

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What happens when an emulsifier is added to an emulsion?
The hydrophobic head of an emulsifier is attracted towards the oil, but it hates water. The hydrophillic tail loves water but hates oil, so the tail on the outside of the oil droplet, which keeps the oil evenly spaced out between the water.
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Explain hydrogenation
Vegetable oils are reacted with hydrogen at about 60 Degrees Celsius with a nickel catalyst. The hydrogen opens up the double bond, making it a saturated hydrocarbon. They are hardened
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What are the layers of the earth, from outside to inside?
Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, Inner Core
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Where are most of our resources found?
In the earth's crust
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What are the properties of the crust?
Relatively thin and rocky
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What are the properties of the mantle?
It has the properties of a solid, but can flow very slowly
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What is the core made of?
Liquid Nickel and Iron
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What surrounds the earth?
The atmosphere
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What moves the tectonic plates?
Convection currents in the mantle driven by heat
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How much do tectonic plates move annually?
A few centimetres per year
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What is continental drift?
The tectonic plates moving a little bit per year
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What happens when tectonic plates meet?
The plates push together, or ride over and under each other.
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What happens at tectonic plate boundaries?
Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
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What happens if the crust crumples?
It forms mountain ranges
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What is Alfred Wegner's Theory?
That all countries used to be joined together, and that they drifted apart due to continental drift. He called the country Pangea.
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What are the 2 types of tectonic plates?
Continental: Ones that form the land; and Oceanic:ones that form under oceans.
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Why do volcanoes happen?
Where plates meet,crust becomes unstable as plates slide over each other, ride over or under each other, or push against each other. Magma rock is less dense than the crust,rises to surface through weaknesses in the crust, forming a volcano
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Why do people live near volcanoes?
Because the soil is very fertile.
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Why do earthquakes happen?
When tectonic plates are sudden, it causes an earthquake.
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What are the proportions of today's atmosphere?
78% Nitrogen; 21% Oxygen; Other Gases E.g. 0.9% Argon and 0.037% Carbon Dioxide
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Why do we need oxygen?
It is important for animals to respire and for fuels to burn.
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What was the early atmosphere mostly made up of?
Carbon Dioxide
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What was the Miller-Urey Experiment?
An experiment that was done to see if substances could be made by living things
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Explain hydrogenation

Back

Vegetable oils are reacted with hydrogen at about 60 Degrees Celsius with a nickel catalyst. The hydrogen opens up the double bond, making it a saturated hydrocarbon. They are hardened

Card 3

Front

What are the layers of the earth, from outside to inside?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where are most of our resources found?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the properties of the crust?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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