EMPA definitions

Definitions for EMPA Written test

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Accuracy
an accurate measurement which is close to the true value
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Anomalous Data
measurements that fall outside the normal or expected range of measured values
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Calibration
involves fixing known points and constructing a scale between these fixed points
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Chance
results due to luck
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Confounding Variable
a variable that may affect the outcome of the investigation aside from the independent variable
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Control Experiment
set up to eliminate certain possibilities, for example the influence of a confounding variable
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Control Group
treated exactly the same as the experimental group except for the factor being investigated to ensure validity
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Correlation
a relationship between two variables, may not be a causal one
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Dependent Variable
value of which is measured for each change in the independent variable
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Double-Blind Trial
A trial in which neither the patients or the experimenters know who is in the experimental group or the control group in order to avoid bias
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Errors
Cause readings to be different from the true value
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Evidence
Data or observations that are used to support a given hypothesis or belief
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Fair Test
Only the independent variable affects the dependent variable
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Hypothesis
Possible explanation of a problem that can be tested experimentally
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Independent
Variable altered by the experimenter
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Null Hypothesis
A clear hypothesis that can be tested in order to produce a statistic
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Placebo
Given to members of a control group to simulate an experimental condition
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Precision
Smallest scale division on the measuring instrument that is being used
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Protocol
Once an experimental method has been shown to produce valid and reliable results, it becomes a protocol used by other scientists
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Random Distribution
A distribution that arises due to chance
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Random Errors
Occur in an unpredictable way and may be due to human error or faulty equipment
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Raw Data
Instrument readings and any other data collected at the time of the investigation
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Reliability
Results can be repeated if the same experiment is carried out again
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Systematic Errors
Cause readings to be spread around some value other than the true value
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True Value
Accurate value found if quantity measured with no errors
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Validity
Only valid if measurements have been affected by a single independent variable only
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Zero Errors
Caused by instruments that have an incorrect zero
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

measurements that fall outside the normal or expected range of measured values

Back

Anomalous Data

Card 3

Front

involves fixing known points and constructing a scale between these fixed points

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

results due to luck

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

a variable that may affect the outcome of the investigation aside from the independent variable

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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