EMPA Keywords

  • Created by: qwerty123
  • Created on: 01-03-16 20:11
An accurate measurement is one which is close to the true value and free from errors.
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A correlation shows that there is a relationship between two variables. However, it may not be a casual one.
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Casual Link
A change in one variable that results from or is causes by a change in another variable.
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Independent Variable
The independent variable is the variable for which values are changed for which values are changed by the investigator.
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Dependant Variable
The dependant variable is the variable the value of which is measured for each change in the independent variable.
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Control Variable
A confounding variable is one that may, in addition to the independent variable, affect the outcome of the investigation. Control variables must be kept constant or the investigation will not be fair. Sometimes referred to as the confounding variable
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The results of the investigation may be considered reliable if they can be repeated. if other scientists get the same results, then the results of the initial investigation are more likely to be reliable.
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How can the reliabilty of data in a single investigation be improved?
Carrying out repeat measurements and standardise the procedure.
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Precision is related to the smallest scale division on the measuring instrument that is being used. A set of precise measurements will have very little spread around the mean value.
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Anomalous Data
This are those measurements that fall outside the normal, or expected, range of measured values.
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Variation is a characteristic of all living organisms, and it is often difficult in biological investigations to distinguish between data that reflect this variation and those that are genuinely anomalous.
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Anomalous Date
A large number of readings allows anomalous data to be identified with greater certainty.
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Excluding Anomalous Results
If we are sure that an error in techniques caused the anomalous result we are justified in excluding it. if we have no idea what caused it, then the result must remain.
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A control experiment is one that is set up to eliminate certain possibilities. In a well designed investigation, the independent variable is changed and all control variables remain constant.
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Control Experiment
It is possible that something other than the independent variable might have produced the results that were obtained. A control experiment is one that is designed to eliminate this possibility.
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Card 2




A correlation shows that there is a relationship between two variables. However, it may not be a casual one.

Card 3


Casual Link


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Card 4


Independent Variable


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Card 5


Dependant Variable


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