Elizabeth I Religious Policy

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What date did Queen Mary I die?
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Protestants who had escaped Britain during the mass exodus, returned to Britain following Mary's death. What were the three categories of ideas that the returned Protestants fell into?
Zwinglianism, Calvinism and Lutheranism
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Who was the founder of Zwinglianism, where did they find their ideas and what dates did they live?
Ulrich Zwingli from 1484-1556 and Swiss
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Who was the founder of Calvinism, where did they find their ideas and what dates did they live?
John Calvin from 1509-64 and French
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Who was the founder of Lutheranism, where did they find their ideas and what dates did they live?
Martin Luther from 1548-1547 and German
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Describe the Doctrine of Zwinglianism
1. No Catholic Practices (e.g. no tolerance for consubstantiation: Communion is purely commemorative) 2. Elaborate dress and images were not described in the scriptures so not allowed in churches 3. Democratic shared relationship = Church + State
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In what document did John Calvin publish his Calvinist Doctrine and when was it published?
The 'Institutes' published in Geneva in 1536
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Describe the Doctrine of Calvinism
1. Faith Alone 2. Predestination: Only God can rule the unruly 3. Christ's presence = spiritual+real to congregation 4. Plain churches
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What did Martin Luther pin to Wittenburg Cathedral door in 1517?
He pinned his '95 theses' [criticising catholicism]
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Describe the Doctrine of Lutherianism
1. Scriptures only true authority (not the Pope or Priests etc.) 2. Sermons should not contradict God's word 3. Eucharist (bread and wine) is not literally Jesus's body and blood 4. Democratic- should be a head of the church
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Elizabeth I translated three texts by...
Desiderius Erasmus
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What did Elizabeth I not allow Priests to do at her coronation?
To hold candles as that was viewed as a Catholic procedure
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On what date did Elizabeth walk out of a sermon because a Priest had raised the bread at Mass?
Christmas Day 1558
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What did Elizabeth I have in her private chapel that contradicted her Protestant beliefs?
She had crucifixes and candles (kinda hypocritical since she had told priests not to hold them at her coronation)!!
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Why was Elizabeth not always civil with Mrs Parker {the Archbishop of Canterbury's wife}?
She was against clergymen having the right to marry (uh oh, acting like a Catholic again)
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What kind of Protestantism (out of the three) did Elizabeth's religious beliefs fall into favour with most?
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The majority of those returning from the Mass Exodus believed in what type of Protestantism?
Calvinism- which was against a hierarchy within the church.
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When Elizabeth was at the top of the church in England, what title did she give herself and why was it significant?
Elizabeth gave herself the title 'Supreme Governor of the Church'. This was significant, as she was not 'supreme head', which would lead to less opposition from the Catholics (who saw the Pope as the head of the church)
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When was the Act of Supremacy introduced?
May 1559
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What was the main aim of the Act of Supremacy?
To establish Elizabeths authority over the church ['supreme governor' not 'supreme head']
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What did the Act of Supremacy force clergy to do for Elizabeth?
Swear an oath recognising the royal supremacy of the church.
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Why was the Act of Supremacy successful in separating Protestants from Catholics? Give an example
Catholics would not take the oath e.g. Bishop Kitchen and Llandaff didn't take the oath. There were 25 clergy in total that refused the oath (4%)
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Give an example of someone that filled on of the 25 spaces left after the removal of Catholic clergy in the Act of Supremacy?
Matthew Parker was appointed Arch Bishop of Cantebury
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What was the name of the enforcers of the Act of Supremacy Oath and what did they go on to ensure they got all of the clergy?
The court of High Commission went on a visitation (tour), where they made the clergy take the oath and informed them about religious Royal Injunctions.
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When was the Act of Uniformity introduced?
May 1559
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What did the Act of Uniformity fine people for?
It was compulsory to attend Church on Sundays and any holy days. Should you be foolish enough not to attend then you would receive a 12d (equivalent to 5p) fine. The fine profits were then given to local charities.
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Under the Act of Uniformity there was a New Book of Common Prayer (based on old Edwardian Book) introduced, what did this include/change and why was it viewed as a compromise?
It compromised on the wording of communion (incorporating words from 1549 and 1552 books of Prayer). It was rather ambiguous and left people to decide for themselves if it's spiritual presence, really Jesus or way to remember the last supper
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What was the most Catholic element of the Act of Uniformity?
Crucifixes and Candlesticks on communion table as well as very colourful dress regulations: Vestiarian Controversy 1566
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When were the Royal Injunctions introduced?
July 1559
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Who drew up the Royal Injunctions and how many of them were there?
William Cecil drew up 57 Royal Injunctions
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Give a few examples of Royal Injunctions
1. Preaching was to be licensed by a bishop 2. All books and pamphlets had to be licensed by the Court of High Commission 3. English Bibles MUST be displayed 4. Outlaw Pilgrimages (bye bye Catholic belief) 5. Allowed Clerical marriage
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Name a few controversially Catholic swayed Royal Injunctions
Keeping the wafer as bread in the communion, removed black rubric of 1552 (allowed to kneel in church)
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When were the 39 Articles drawn up and finally introduced? They stole the idea from what in Edward VI's reign?
1563-1571 and stole the idea from the 42 Articles in Edwards reign
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Why did it take soooooooo long for the 39 articles (doctrine) to be produced?
It's because Elizabeth allowed the convocation (church leaders) to deal with it so there was frequent debate between the different types of Religious leaders
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What was the convocation?
Church leaders
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Under what act of Parliament were the 39 Articles made law? + when?
Under the Subscription Act in 1571
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So what where the Key parts of the religious settlement? (just to recap)
1. Act of Supremacy 2. Act of Uniformity 3. Royal Injunctions 4. 39 Articles
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Why were Calvinists unhappy about Elizabeth's religious settlement?
They disliked the Church's hierarchy
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Why were Catholics unhappy about Elizabeth's religious settlement?
They didn't like Elizabeth at the head of the church and knew they had an alternative (Mary Queen of Scotts). The House of Lords was primarily elderly men, who were obviously Catholic and like they say, you can't teach an old dog new tricks!
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What's another way of saying 'compromise'?
'via-media' (latin for middle-way)
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What was the historian Neil's argument about the religious settlement?
The Puritan Choir (an 'organised group' of extreme Puritans) forced Elizabeth into a more extreme Protestant settlement [inferring that she was slightly Catholic]
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What evidence is there to suggest that Neil's argument was a load of rubbish?
Geoffrey Elton- 1/4 of the 404 members of Parliament were not Puritans and those that were, were under the authority of Eliz's right hand man William Cecil and his men of business
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What was the historian Jones's argument regarding the religious settlement?
In his book 'Faith by statute' (1559) he criticised Neil by saying that Eliz and her advisors established the settlment THEY wanted. The opposition was really from Catholic Bishops. Elton Puritan choir = non-existent just Cecil's men
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Give an example of when the Catholic Bishops attempted to block the religious settlement going through Parliament (try to include dates)
21st Feb 1559- Drew up a Bill for Elizabeth's role as head of the church and the House of Lords purposefully delayed then didn't grant it (group of old conservative Catholic men stuck in their old ways).
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Why did Elizabeth win the vote for the Act of Uniformity to go through?
She imprisoned everyone who would vote against it and as a result she won but only by 3 votes!
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What does Episcopal mean?
A church with a hierarchy
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What did Puritan's dislike in general?
Disliked compromised reform = so aspects of the Royal Injunctions, 39 Articles, some disliked the church's structure (Calvinists)
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Describe who the Puritans were
Extreme Protestants or "hotter type of Protestant", not a unified group though as they varied in extremes
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What's the name given to the most extreme type of Protestant?
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Where were the Presbyterians located mainly?
London, South + Midlands
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Why were Presbyterians not located in the North of England and remote areas?
As in rural areas like the North the majority remained traditionally Catholic as there wasn't the mobility to be able to spread ideas that far.
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Why were Puritans (including Presbyterians) never a threat to the crown and Elizabeth herself?
As the only alternative was Mary Queen of Scotts, who was a devote Catholic. So the Puritans just wanted to alter the religious settlement (that's not to say Elizabeth didn't take it VERY personally)
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When was the Vestiarian Controversy?
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What sparked the Vestiarian Controversy?
Elizabeth insisted all Bishop's should wear a surplice and cope, which was in line with the very colourful extravagance of the Catholic faith and much to the distaste of Puritans.
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What was the name of the Archbishop that tried to prevent the controversy in 1566 and what was his book?
The Book of Advertisements by Archbishop Parker
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What did the Book of Advertisements do?
Explained that all Bishop's and clergy must have preaching licenses and must swear the oath to Elizabeth and the settlement. It hoped to ensure conformity in the church.
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How many of the diocese in London refused to wear the fancy attire?
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Give two names of clergy that refused to wear the surplice and cope
Laurence Humphrey and Thomas Sampson, who both felt it was 'too catholic'
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How did Elizabeth react to the Vestiarian Controversy?
Lizzy took it very personally: she sacked or suspended individuals who refused to wear the compulsory attire. She took it personally as it was her religious settlement and therefore, she, unlike other monarchs like Henry VII, personally intervened.
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What was the result of Archbishop Parkers Book of Advertisments, the suspension of many clergy and the personal intervention of Elizabeth?
The Catholic's died down in their stance against the clothing, and many just got on with it.
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What kind of people were the Presbyterians?
They were well educated and often government MPs
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Who was the leader of the Presbyterians?
Thomas Cartwright
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What did Presbyterians believe?
That calvinism was the only true religion (no hierarchy)
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Who was Thomas Cartwright and what did he do?
He was a Professor at Cambridge University as well as a Presbyterian and lectured to intellectuals: criticising Elizabeth being at the top of the church in England and explaining Calvinist ideas.
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How did Elizabeth solve the problem of the Presbyterians?
She removed Cartwright's Professorship in December 1570, he then went into exile in 1573.
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Was Elizabeth's method of solving the problem of the Presbyterians successful?
She successfully removed the leader, yes but she was unsuccessful at stopping the spread of Presbyterianism because the ideas were already spread.
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Who started a pro-presbyterian campaign? And what did the campaign involve?
William Strickland. He drew up a bill to reform the Book of Common Prayer i.e. private Baptism ready to pass through parliament
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What was the reaction to the pro-presbyterian campaign?
1. Strickland imprisoned 1571 2. Instructions for Parliament to remove any religious bill not approved by Bishops (1572).
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What was the Babington Plot?
The Catholics attempt at murdering Elizabeth in order to replace her with her rightful Catholic successor: Mary Queen of Scots
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What did MP Anthony Cope attempt to do between 1584-84?
He was another Presbyterian and attempted to introduce a Bill, which was a new Religious Book (he was Calvinist).
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Why was MP Anthony Cope not successful?
Many Protestants believed that he had gone too far: he was arrested and imprisoned. Also, this was at the same time as the Babington Plot so Protestants were more concerned with keeping Elizabeth (Protestant monarch) on the throne.
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How much of a threat were the Presbyterians overall?
Not much but they were persistent.
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What was the name of John Field and Thomas Wilcox's manifesto?
The ad monition of Parliament - changes in line with Calvinist model
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Why were their so many Puritan uprisings (as in why were they allowed to go on for so long)?
Because of the influence of significant nobles (they felt safe enough to get away with it)
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Name some of the influential (calvinist) nobles
Ambrose Dudley (Earl of Warwick), Harvey Hastings (Earl of Huntington), Robert Dudley (Earl of Leicester) and William Cecil (who was the closest to the Queen and would always stick up for the Presbyterian ways)
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What position did Edmund Grindal have and when was he given it?
Archbishop of Canterbury 1576
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Who was Edmund Grindal's predecessor?
Parker who died in 1575
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Why was it said to be a risk to put Grindal in such a powerful position?
Because he had extreme Protestant ideas and Elizabeth was enforcing a compromised settlement.
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Why did Elizabeth appoint Grindal then?
She hoped to bridge the gap between extreme Protestants and the Queen's' religious settlement
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What were Prophesying Debates?
Meetings between lower clergy to discuss religion
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What caused tension between Grindal and Elizabeth?
Grindal allowed the prophesying debates (saw them as just religious discussion) even though Elizabeth had made it clear that it could lead to plotting and was a threat that should be removed.
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What did Grindal say PUBLICLY about Elizabeth?
He said he knew what God wanted. 'Remember madam... that you are mortal' and 'dwelleth in heaven is mightier'. He questioned her authority and put his own opinion above hers. Uh oh... angry Lizzy
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How did Elizabeth react to Grindal scrutinising her?
1577- she suspended him and forced him into the confinement of his home for the rest of his life (died in 1583)
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Who replaced Grindal?
John Whitgrift
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What were John Witgrifts religious views and position with regards to the settlement?
He was Calvinist but supported settlement.
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John Whitgift requested clergy to 1. recognise the Queen as supreme governor 2. Use 1559 book of common prayer ONLY 3. Confrom to the 39 Articles, when did he request them to do this?
October 1583
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Why was John Whitgift called a hypocrite for asking people to do those three things?
Because (supreme governor one especially) contradicted his Calvinist belief in no hierarchy.
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How many of the clergy refused to subscribe to the 39 Articles?
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Who modified Grindal's requests (Article 2) and negotiated with the clergy?
Cecil and Dudley, most of the 400 clergy who opposed then conformed
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In order to isolate the leader of opposition in 84 what was introduced that the clergy had to swear an oath to?
24 Articles
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John Witgift's efforts did NOT stamp out the Presbyterian opposition from under John...who?
John Fields
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What historian described the Presbyterians as "the first really effective Pressure Group in Parliamentary history"?
H.G. Alexander
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What years are referred to as the first part of Elizabeths reign?
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What years are referred to as the second part or 'later part' of Elizabeths reign?
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Who dies in the later part of her reign that leads to decline?
John Field, Walsingham and Dudley
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What diminished the threat posed by Catholics (in 1588)?
The Spanish Armada
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Who was a leading figure head of propaganda between 1588-89 that split puritans?
Martin Marprelate Tracts
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What was the Hacket affair?
He thought he was the 'new messiah' (basically modern day Jesus). This looked bad on the Presbyterians who disowned him when he died in 1591.
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By 1603 how many clergy and laymen still supported the Presbyterian movement?
300 clergy and 75,000 lay members
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What were laymen?
People who were not religiously trained
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Who were the Brownists?
Extreme Puritans: they wanted to be separate from the Chruch of England and start a reform from scratch away from the monarch.
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When and who founded the first Separatist Church? (sep from church of england)
John Browne in 1581
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What was the convocation of Canterbury?
Protestants wanted there to be further reform in 1563: led many to conclude that they could not conform to rules of clerical dress
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What was the Ornaments Rubric?
Attempted to clarify the Act of Uniformity: clergy should wear albs and copes during the Eucharist + suplices during the other services
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As a reaction to the Vestiarian Controversy, who did Archbishop Parker reluctantly summon in December 1564 (by request of the Queen)?
Thomas Sampson (Dean of Christ Church Oxford) and Lawrence Humphrey (Master of Magdalen College Oxford)-- key figure heads of opposition
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When did the Queen intervene with the Vestiarian Controversy and pressure Parker to maintain Uniformity?
January 1565
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When did the Queen dismiss Sampson from his post?
May 1565
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When did Parker introduce his Advertisements?
March 1566
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What was the compromise in Parkers Advertisements?
Clergy could wear surplice at communion (they don;t have to wear Catholic copes)
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What was Adiaphora?
Some Protestants argued that less fundamental issues (clothing) should not cause contentions if core essentials of Protestant doctrine is maintained.
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Card 2


Protestants who had escaped Britain during the mass exodus, returned to Britain following Mary's death. What were the three categories of ideas that the returned Protestants fell into?


Zwinglianism, Calvinism and Lutheranism

Card 3


Who was the founder of Zwinglianism, where did they find their ideas and what dates did they live?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Who was the founder of Calvinism, where did they find their ideas and what dates did they live?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Who was the founder of Lutheranism, where did they find their ideas and what dates did they live?


Preview of the front of card 5
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