Elements from the Sea keywords

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Electronegativity
A measure of the attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of electrons in a covalent bond
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Instantaneous dipole- Induced dipole
Where a molecule with an instaneous dipole (Uneven electron density distribution at any one time forming a partially charged molecule) induces a dipole in a neighbouring molecule forming an intermolecular bond
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Permanent dipole -Permanent dipole
When two molecules with permanent dipoles (Two atoms bonded to each other with sufficient differences in electro negativities causing permanent partial charges on the molecules) are attracted to each other and form an intermolecular bond.
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(First) Ionisation enthalpy
The energy required to remove one electron from each atom in 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of gaseous 1+ ions
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Hyrolysis
The breaking of bonds with the addition of water
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Substitution reaction
A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms is replaced with different atoms or groups of atoms.
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Nucelophile
A molecule or negatively charged Ion with a lone pair of electrons that it can donate to a positively charged atom to form a new covalent bond
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Oxidation
The loss of electrons
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Reduction
The gain of electrons
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Card 2

Front

Where a molecule with an instaneous dipole (Uneven electron density distribution at any one time forming a partially charged molecule) induces a dipole in a neighbouring molecule forming an intermolecular bond

Back

Instantaneous dipole- Induced dipole

Card 3

Front

When two molecules with permanent dipoles (Two atoms bonded to each other with sufficient differences in electro negativities causing permanent partial charges on the molecules) are attracted to each other and form an intermolecular bond.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The energy required to remove one electron from each atom in 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of gaseous 1+ ions

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The breaking of bonds with the addition of water

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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