Atomic Structure + Periodic Table

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  • Created by: SiBea13
  • Created on: 08-05-18 16:55
What is an Atom?
Substance that is made of only 1 type of element
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What is an Element? What are the 2 types?
Substance w/ 1 type of atoms/same specific atomic no. different atoms/elements have different specific atomic no.s); metal or non-metal.
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What is a Compound?
2+ elements chemically combined/bonded in fixed proportions.
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Are the properties of Compounds identical to the Elements comprising them?
Different properties.
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When are Compounds made/separated?
Chemical reactions.
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What are Mixtures?
2+ substances not chemically combined/bonded.
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What happens to the properties of the Substances in Mixtures?
Unchanged.
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What Elements react to release H+ ions? If they react in water what do they form?
Hydrogen + Metals; Hydroxide ions (which make alkaline (aq)).
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What are the Alkali Metals?
The Group 1 elements (Metals).
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Comparatively, how are the densities of Alkali Metals to other metals?
Low.
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What do Alkali Metals react w/ + what do they form in doing so?
React to form ionic compounds w/ non-metals.
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What colour + state are Alkali Metals' compounds?
White (s).
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What colour are Alkali Metals' (aq) when they dissolve in water?
Colourless.
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What are Alkali Metals stored under to keep from reacting w/ water/air?
Oil - which doesn't mix or react w/ water.
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How do Alkali Metals react w/ water?
They vigorously fizz + move around the surface of it.
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As you go down the Group, do the Alkali Metals get more or less reactive? Why?
Increase in reactivity as you go down group – atoms get larger downwards + outer electron shells are further; less attracted by intermolecular forces of attraction + are more easily lost.
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What are Halogens?
The Group 7 Elements (Non-metals).
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Do Halogen vapours have colours?
Yes.
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What are the charges of Halide (Halogen) ions?
-1
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What happens when Halogens + metals are reacted?
They form ionic salts.
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What form do pure Halogen elements exist in?
Paired molecules.
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What happens when Halogens + non-metals react?
They form molecular/simple covalent compounds.
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What happens to the boil/melt pt, + reactivity of Halogens as you go down the group?
The boil/melt pts increase + reactivity decreases – atoms get larger downwards + outer electron shells are further; less attracted by intermolecular forces of attraction so harder to attract more electrons.
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Compared to G1 Metals, are Transition Metals stronger or softer?
Stronger.
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Compared to G1 Metals, are Transition Metals more or less reactive?
More.
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Compared to G1 Metals, are Transition Metals more or less dense?
More.
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Compared to G1 Metals, do Transition Metals have higher/lower boil/melt pts
Higher.
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What charges are the ions released by Transition Metals?
A range of different ones.
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Are Transition Metal compounds coloured?
Yes.
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Are Transition Metals good catalysts?
Yes.
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In the Periodic Table, what are groups + what do they contain?
Columns; similar property elements..
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In the Periodic Table, what is the relationship between groups + electrons?
Groups contain elements w/ the same no. of electrons as the group no.
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In the Periodic Table, what are periods + what do they contain?
Rows; elements show gradual change in properties across.
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In the Periodic Table, how are metals/non-metals arranged?
W/ metals to the left + bottom.
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What is Atomic No?
No. of electrons/protons that an atom has.
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What is atomic mass no?
No. of protons + neutrons in an atom.
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What is the the Periodic Table?
All elements arranged periodically by order of atomic no.
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What subatomic particles do Atoms contain + what are their charges?
Neutrons - neutral (0); protons - positive (+1); electrons - negative (-1).
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What is the charge of an Atom + why?
0 because they have equal amounts of protons + neutrons.
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How are the subatomic particles of Atoms arranged?
Protons + neutrons in the middle, surrounded by electrons in shells of different energy.
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What is an Isotope?
Atoms of same element (same electronic structure) w/ different no. of neutrons.
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What is the Isotope Equation to find the relative atomic mass of an Isotope?
Relative Atomic Mass = [(isotope 1 mass * abundance %) + (isotope 2 mass * abundance in sample)] / 100.
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What is the max no. of electrons are in the 1st, 2nd + 3rd shells of an atom?
2, 8, 8.
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How are Electrons arranged?
So that each electron occupies the lowest energy level available.
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Why do Atoms react?
So they can become stable w/ a full outer shell?
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Why do some Elements have similar Properties?
Same no. Electrons in highest energy levels so similar reactions.
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What do the Periods in the Periodic Table show?
Same period elements have same no. highest energy levels.
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Why don't Noble Gases (G8) react?
They are stable w/ full outer shells.
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Why do boil/melt pts increase as you go down the Periodic Table?
The Atomic Masses are larger + thus require a larger amount of energy to change the state of the atom.
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What is the Radius of an Atom?
0.1nm (1x10-10m).
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What is the Radius of a Nucleus?
1/10,000 of an atom (1x10-14m).
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is an Element? What are the 2 types?

Back

Substance w/ 1 type of atoms/same specific atomic no. different atoms/elements have different specific atomic no.s); metal or non-metal.

Card 3

Front

What is a Compound?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Are the properties of Compounds identical to the Elements comprising them?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When are Compounds made/separated?

Back

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