Electrons, Bonding and Structure

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How many electrons are in each shell?
1st-2 2nd-8 3rd-18 4th-32
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How many electrons in each orbital?
s=2 p=6 d=10 f=14
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What is a dative covalent bond?
shared pair of electrons which has been provided by one of the bonding atoms only eg. NH4+
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How are oxonium ions formed?
HCl + H20 -> H30+ + Cl- has dative covalent bond on one lone pair
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Explain the Octet Rule
unpaired electrons pair up, maximum no. of electrons that can pair up is equivalent to the number of electrons in the outer shell
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What is the bond angle on a tetrahedral shape?
109.5' eg. NH4+
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What is the angle on a pyramidal shape?
107'
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What angle is the non-linear shape?
104.5'
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What is electronegativity?
The ability for an atom to attract electrons in a covalent bond
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What is a permanent dipole?
small charge difference in electronegativities of the bonded atoms
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What is a polar molecule?
has an overall dipole when you take into account all the dipoles across bonds. They are non-symmetrical
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What is a permanent dipole-dipole interaction?
weak attractive force between permanent dipoles in neighbouring polar molecules e.g. HCl
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What are van der waals forces?
attractive forces between induced dipoles in neighbouring molecules. -> unbalanced distribution of charge, instantaneous dipole, induces a dipole in neighbouring molecules.
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What is the link between boiling points and van der waals?
VdWs are the only intermolecular force between non-polar molecules. Increase as electrons increases
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What is a hydrogen bond?
strong dipole-dipole attraction between an electron-deficient hydrogen atom on one molecule and a lone pair of electrons on a highly electronegative atom on a different molecule
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What are the ionic compounds solubility rules?
dissolve in polar solvents ie. water, break bonds down
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What is a simple molecular lattice?
3D structure of molecules bonded by weak intermolecular forces
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What are the properties of simple molecular structures?
low mp and bp, non-conductors, soluble in non-polar solvents so vdws form between substances
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What are the properties of giant covalent structures?
high mp and bp. non-conductors (except graphite), insoluble (bonds too strong)
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Explain the properties of diamond
tetrahedral structure, poor conductivity, no delocalised electrons, hard
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Explain the properties of graphite
hexagonal layer, weak VdWs, conducts, delocalised electrons, electrons move between layers, soft, layers slide
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How many electrons in each orbital?

Back

s=2 p=6 d=10 f=14

Card 3

Front

What is a dative covalent bond?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How are oxonium ions formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Explain the Octet Rule

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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