Electrons, Bonding and Structure

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What are electrons shells made up of?
Sub-shells and Orbitals
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What is another name for an electron shell?
Energy Level
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What are numbers given to each energy level called?
Principal Quantum Number
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Fill in the blank: Shells further from the nucleus have a greater energy level than shells ..... to the nucleus
Closer
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Name the first 4 sub-shells
s, p, d, f
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How many electrons can be in each orbital?
2
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By how many orbitals do the sub-shells s, p, d and f increase by consecuitively?
2
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What is an orbital?
A region outside the nucleus which occupies a max of 2 electrons
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What shape is a s-orbital?
Sphere
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What shape is a p-orbital?
Dumbbell
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At what angles are the 3 p orbitals arranged with each other?
90 degrees
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Name the 3 axes p orbitals are arranged in
x, y and z
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Why does 4s become before 3d?
4s has a lower state of energy than the 3d sub-shell so 4s fills up first
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What is the subshell notation for Helium?
1s^2
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In sub shell notation what do the symbols represent?
The Energy level, Number of Electrons and Sub shell
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What determines the chemical properties of an element?
The Electronic Structure
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What is the word used to describe elements which dont react?
Inert
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Where on the periodic table is the d-block found?
Transition Metals
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Define what is meant by first ionisation energy
energy required to remove 1 electron from each atom in 1 mole of gaseous atoms
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What type of process is ionisation?
Endothermic
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What are the 3 factors which affect ionisation energy?
Nucleas charge, Distance from nucleus, Shielding
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How does nuclear charge affect ionisation energy?
The more protons in the nucleus the more positively charged the nucleus is so the stronger the attraction is
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How does distance from nucleus affect the ionisation energy?
The attractions weakens the further away from the nucleus the electrons are
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How does shielding affect the ionisation energy?
More electrons there are the less attraction towards the nuclear charge there is
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What is the name for the additional removal of electrons from ions?
Successive ionisation energy
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What does the successive ionisation energy show?
Shell structure
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Why do successive ionisation energies increase within each shell?
The electrons are being removed from an increasingly positive ion so there is less repulsion amongst the remaining electrons.
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How are ions attracted in ionic bonding?
electrostatically
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What is an ionic bond?
Electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
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What is the total charge of an ionic compound?
0
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Sodium Chloride is an example of what?
A giant ionic lattice
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What are 3 properties of ionic compounds?
Conducts electricity, High melting points and dissolve in water
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Why do ionic compounds have high melting point?
Takes a lot of energy to break the strong electrostatic forces
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Why do ionic compounds dissolve in water?
Water is polar and pulls the ions away from the lattice
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What is a molecule?
Smallest par of a compound tha can take part in a chemical reaction
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Define a covalent bond
A shared pair of electrons
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What is a dative covalent bond?
Where both electrons come from one atom
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What is the shape of a diamond?
Tetrahedral
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What is an example of a giant covalent lattice?
Diamond
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What is meaning for sublime?
Changes straight from a solid to a gas, skipping out the liquid stage
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In graphite what forces are between each layer?
Van der Waals
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What affects the melting point in metallic bonding?
Number of delocalised electrons, size of metal ion, lattice structure
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What makes metals good conductors?
delocalised electrons can pas kinetic energy to each other
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How many lone pairs does water have and what bond angle does it give it?
2 lone pairs at an angle of 104.5
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How do double bonds differ from single bonds within a shape?
Double bonds have more repulsion than single bonds
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What is the most electronegative element?
Fluorine
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What makes a bond polar?
A covalent bond between two atoms of different electronegativities the bonding pulls more towards the more electonegative atom
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What is a dipole?
Difference in atoms electronegativities
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What scale is used to measure electronegativity?
Pauling Scale
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What are the 3 intermolecular forces?
Permanenet dipole-dipole, Induced dipole-dipole and hydrogen bonds
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How does hydrogen bonding affect properties?
Soluble in water, higher boiling points
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Where can Van der Waals be found?
Between all atoms and molecules
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What will increase Van der Waals force cause?
Higher boiling point, less viscosity
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is another name for an electron shell?

Back

Energy Level

Card 3

Front

What are numbers given to each energy level called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Fill in the blank: Shells further from the nucleus have a greater energy level than shells ..... to the nucleus

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name the first 4 sub-shells

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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