Electron structure - Chemistry AS

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Define the term first ionisation energy.
The energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1+ ions.
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Define the term successive ionisation energy.
A measure of the energy required to remove each electron in fur
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What factors affect ionisation energies?
Atomic Radius, Nuclear charge and shielding.
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How does a greater atomic radius affect ionisation energies?
The greater the atomic radius, the smaller the nuclear attraction experienced by the outer electrons therefore less energy is required to overcome the attraction from the positive nucleus.
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How does a greater atomic charge affect the ionisation energy?
Greater nuclear charge, the greater the attractive force on the outer electrons - more energy needed - greater ionisation energy.
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What is shielding and what are its effects on ionisation energy?
Inner shells of electrons repel outer-shell electrons. The more inner shells there are, the greater the shielding effect and the smaller the nuclear attraction experienced by the outer electrons
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How many electrons are in each of the first 4 shells of an atom?
2, 8, 18, 32 (in order 1-4)
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What is an orbital?
An orbital is a region that can hold up to two electrons with opposite spins.
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Describe the shape of a s-orbital and how many are in each shell?
A spherical shape with one in every shell.
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Describe the shape of the p-orbital and how many are there in each shell?
A 3-dimentional dumb-bell shape. There are three in each shell from n=2 upwards.
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How many orbitals make up the s-, p-, d- and f- subshells?
s-1, p-3, d-5, f-7
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Define the term sub-shell.
A group of the same type of atomic orbitals within a shell.
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How are electrons in the shells of an atom arranged?
Electrons are added one at a time to build up the atom. The lowest available energy level is filled first, each energy level must be full before the next, higher energy level, starts to fill.
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When is it important to take special care when writing electron configurations?
Beyond the 3p sub-shell because the 4s sub-shell has a lower energy so fills before the 3d sub-shell.
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Card 2

Front

Define the term successive ionisation energy.

Back

A measure of the energy required to remove each electron in fur

Card 3

Front

What factors affect ionisation energies?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How does a greater atomic radius affect ionisation energies?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How does a greater atomic charge affect the ionisation energy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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