Electrolysis

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What is the electrolyte?
An ionic substance that is either molten or dissolved in water
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What conducts the electricity?
The free ions in the electrolyte.
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Where are electrons taken from?
Electrons are taken away from the positive anode and given to other ions and the negative cathode.
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What happens at the cathode?
At the cathode, the ions are reduced and gain an electron to form atoms.
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What happens at the anode?
At the anode, the ions are oxidised and lose an electron to form atoms.
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What is produced at the cathode with molten sodium chloride?
Sodium is produced at the cathode
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What is produced at the anode?
Chlorine is produced at the anode.
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Why is sodium produced at the cathode?
The sodium ions are cations because they are positively charged and therefore attract to the negative electrode, the cathode.
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Why is chlorine produced at the anode?
The chlorine ions are anions because they are negatively charged and are therefore attracted to the positive anode.
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What products does the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride give?
Sodium is used in street lamps and as a coolant in some nuclear reactors. Chlorine is used to make disinfectant and PVC glue.
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What is produced at the cathode in the electrolysis of molten lead bromide?
Lead is produced at the cathode.
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What is produced at the anode?
Bromine is produced at the anode.
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What happens if the substance isn't molten but is aqueous?
If dissolved in water (aqueous) as well as the ions from the compound, there are hydrogen and hydroxide ions from the water to deal with.
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What does this affect?
This means that it is not as easy to know what will be produced at the anode/cathode. We must look at the reactivity series.
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When will the metal be produced at the cathode?
The metal is produced if it is less reactive than hydrogen.
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When will hydrogen be produced at the cathode?
Hydrogen is produced if the metal is more reactive than hydrogen.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What conducts the electricity?

Back

The free ions in the electrolyte.

Card 3

Front

Where are electrons taken from?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens at the cathode?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens at the anode?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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