EL 5 The Molecules of Life

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  • Created by: LBCW0502
  • Created on: 21-12-15 11:07
What is covalent bonding?
When non-metallic elements react and electrons are shared between the atoms of the elements in these compounds
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Which electrons are shared in a covalent bond?
Electrons in the outer shell of the atoms involved
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What are electrons that form bonds called?
Bonding pairs
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What are pairs of electrons which are not involved in bonding called?
Lone pairs
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How many lone pairs of electrons does ammonia have?
1 lone pair of electrons
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How many lone pairs of electrons does water have?
2 lone pairs of electrons
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What is a dative covalent bond?
Both bonding electrons come from the same atom
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How is a dative covalent bond shown?
It is shown by an arrow pointing away from the atom that donates the pair of electrons
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What are the physical properties of covalently bonded simple molecules?
Strong intramolecular bonds within simple molecules, weak electrostatic attraction, low melting and boiling points, does not conduct electricity, insoluble in water
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What is electron pair repulsion?
Groups of electrons arrange themselves so that they are as far as possible
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What is the bond angle for 4 single covalent bonds e.g. methane
109.5 degrees
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What is the bond angle for 3 single covalent bonds and 1 lone pair of electrons e.g. ammonia?
107 degrees
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What is the bond angle for 2 single covalent bonds and 2 lone pairs of electrons e.g. water?
104.5 degrees
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What is the shape of two groups of electrons around the central atom?
Linear molecules
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What is the shape of three groups of electrons around the central atom?
Planar molecules (trigonal planar)
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What is the shape of four groups of electrons around the central atom?
Tetrahedral
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What is the shape of five groups of electrons around the central atom?
Bipyramidal molecules
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What is the shape of six groups of electrons around the central atom?
Octahedral molecules
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What is the bond angle in a linear molecule?
180 degrees
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What is the bond angle in a planar molecule?
120 degrees
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What is the bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule?
109.5 degrees
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What is the bond angle in a bipyramidal molecule?
120 degrees to 90 degrees
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What is the bond angle in an octahedral molecule?
90 degrees
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Which electrons are shared in a covalent bond?

Back

Electrons in the outer shell of the atoms involved

Card 3

Front

What are electrons that form bonds called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are pairs of electrons which are not involved in bonding called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How many lone pairs of electrons does ammonia have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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