Edward VI Key Info

  • Created by: jroe99
  • Created on: 10-06-18 18:53
Inheritance
1543, Third Succession Act, if Edward dies without heirs, throne would pass to Mary, reversed earlier acts, didn't reverse illegitmacy. Inherited £1.2million in debt. By 1551, 75% of coins tin, govt made £114,000. Age of maturity lowered to 16.
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Regency Council
Reformists led by Somerset. Norfolk & Gardiner undermined by Paget & Denny, made changes to will. Denny in control of dry stamp
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Problem of minority
Unable to lead troops into battle. Other states might exploit weakness. Return to civil war. Unable to control factional struggle. In age of personal monarchy, concerns about image.
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Emergence of Somerset
Successful solider in 1540's. Had to countersign Edward's signature. Sole use of dry stamp, should be 4 men. 1551, Edward began attendng council meetings.
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Succession in 1553
Northumberland excluded Mary, essential to preserve power. Marriage of Dudley & LJG.
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Evidence of Edward's influence
Greater role in government, privy council meetings. Committed Protestant. Religious reform programme.
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The Devise
Used Act of Succession 1534 to say illegitimate. Drawn up May 1553. LJG made heir, executed February 1554 in response to Wyatt.
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The Plot
Poorly managed, suggests it was Edward. Not sufficient forces, only 2000 men. Didn't capture Mary. Didn't launch propaganda campaign. 6th July, Mary proclaimed herself Queen. Jane proclaimed Queen 10th July. 20th July 1553, Mary acknowledged Queen.
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Anti-Somerset faction
Paget, Warwick, Northumberland, Wriothesley. Opposed to religious changes.
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Somerset's loss of power
High expenditure, eg. £351,000 garrisoning at Scotland. Moved to Windsor with Edward, claimed to be prisoner & left.
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Triumph of Warwick
Majority of religious conservatives did not trust Warwick. By January 1550, Earls of Arundel & Southampton dismissed, became Lord President of the council. Forced to ally with radicals. Factional struggles Oct 1549 to early 1550.
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Execution of Somerset
Restored to Court & Privy Council. Continued to plot, executed 22nd January 1552.
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Good Duke
Won Battle of Pinkie 1547. 1547, Chantries Act helped economy. Head of enclosure commission, 1548. Sheep tax (5%).
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Bad Duke
Autocratic, turned councillors against him, 70 proclamations in 3 years. Vagrancy Act. Destroyed relationship with Edward.
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Phases of religious change
1547- Attack on Catholicism. 1548-Lack of official doctrine, uncontrolled radical Protestants. 1549-52-Establishment of Protestant worship. 1553- Establishment of fully reformed church.
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Attack on Catholicism, 1547
Somerset's religious policies slow & cautious, most clergy opposed to change. July 1547, Book of Homilies & Erasmums' paraphrases introduced. Services in English, English bible, remove superstitious imagery, chantries dissolved, repealed Treason Act.
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Radical activity, 1548
Iconoclastic attacks on altars & images. Pamphlets attacking mass. Proclamations between January & April 1548 to restore order. Sep 1548, Council banned all public preaching. Success against Scots strengthened position, reform Autumn 1548.
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Establishment of Protestant Worship, 1549-52
Act of Uniformity, January 1549. Sacraments only communion, baptism, confirmation, marriage, burial. Clergy could marry. Ended singing for souls of dead. Holy communion in English. Laity could take communion in both kinds.
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Establishment continued
New Prayer Book caused unrest. New Treason Act. Second Act of Uniformity.
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Establishment of fully reformed church, 1553
Second Prayer Book, Act of Uniformity, removed all traces of Catholicism. 42 articles drawn up, never made law. 1553, England legally Protestant.
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Support & Opposition
Second Act of Uniformity had little time to make impact. July 1547, royal injunctions, not easy. February 1548, all images removed. December 1548, proclamation ordering all remaining images be destroyed.
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Religious Unrest
Western Rebellion, June 1549, religiously motivated. Wanted: 6 articles. Mass in latin. Holy bread & water. Restoration of images. Prayers for souls of dead.
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Evidence of wills
Kent wills show only 8% Protestant in 1549. 27% in Suffolk. In York, only 2 Protestant wills before 1555.
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Social & economic problems
Population growth, 2.3 to 3million 1525-51. Rising prices, up by 114% by 1549 compared to 1508. Debasement. Poor Harvests, 1547 to 1558, 1548&49. Increasing poverty, Dissolution removed institution to help poor. Enclosure.
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Enclosure commission
Enclosure Commission 1548, may have encouraged unrest in 1549.
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Rebellions of 1549
Affected 25 countries. 2 recquired use of government troops.
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Western Rebellion demands
Murder of William Body in Helston, 1548. Protest about Act of Uniformity. Drawn up by Catholic priests tor restore traditional doctrine, assert belief in transubstantiation & purgatory. Attack on sheep & cloth tax. Wanted 6 articles.
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Events of Western rebellion (3,000 rebels killed)
Gentry attacked & robbed at St.Michaels Mount. Murdered William Hellyons from local gentry. Laid siege to Exeter. Mayor provided poor relief, firewood, food. Force sent under John Russell, put down unrest in Oxfordshire & Buckinghamshire enroute.
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Kett's Rebellion demands
Enclosure, saffron ground, gentry abuse of foldcourse system. Rising rents. Manipulation of local government. Better preachers & further reform
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Events of Kett's rebellion
East Anglia, unrest began as enclosure riot in Attleborough. 16,000 men marched to Norwich. Sent a force under Marquis of Northampton, defeated. Duke of Northumberland massacred 3,000 rebels at Dussindale. Kett hanged.
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Other unrest in 1549
Religious change cause in Oxfordshire, Yorkshire, Hampshire.
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Political issues of plot
When LJG married Dudley May 1553, Edward expected to live. Not plotting to further career.
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Religious issues
Northumberland likely to be excluded by Mary. Might have been supported by those who gained land from dissolution.
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Threat to Mary
Northumberland initially had support of Privy council, but when forced to leave London, council changed mind.
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Aftermath
Support of legitimate ruler. Released Gardiner & Norfolk from jail. Paget in Privy Council. Northumberland, LJG & Dudley executed.
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Good Duke
August 1549, put down Kett's rebellion at Dussindale. Repealed sheep tax. March1552, coinage back to 1527 level. Reduced crown debt from £260,000 to £180,000.
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Bad Duke
Handed back Boulogne for only £400,000, not £2million.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Regency Council

Back

Reformists led by Somerset. Norfolk & Gardiner undermined by Paget & Denny, made changes to will. Denny in control of dry stamp

Card 3

Front

Problem of minority

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Emergence of Somerset

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Succession in 1553

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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