Educational Policy: Problems of the Education Reform Act 1988 and 1997 on wards

Critics argue that marketisation has increased what?
Inequalities between pupils
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What do Ball and Whitty examine?
How marketisation reproduces and legitimates inequality through; exam league tables and the funding formula
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What does publishing exam league tbales ensure?
That schools with good results are in demand
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What does schools being more selective result in?
Them recruiting high achieving, mainly middle class pupils
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Which pupils get the best education?
Middle-class pupils
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What is the overall effect of producing exam league tables?
That it produces unequal schools and it reproduces social class inequalities
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What does Bartlett suggest?
That league tables encourage cream-skimming and silt shifting
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What is cream-skimming?
'Good' schools can be more selective and choose their own customers and recruit high achieving, mainly middle-class pupils
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What is silt-shifting?
'Good' schools can avoid taking less able students who are likely to get poor results and damage the schools league table position
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What is formula funding?
When schools are allocated funds according to how many pupils they attract
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Popular schools get more funds so what can they afford?
Better qualified teachers and resources
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Unpopular schools struggle to recruit pupils so what does this mean?
They lose their funding?
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What did the Public Policy Research? 2012
Found that competition more segregation between children of different social backgrounds
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What did Gewirtz Study?
14 Secondary Schools in London
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What did Gewirtz find?
That differences in parents' economic and cultural capital lead to class differences.
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What were the 3 types of parents that she identified?
Privileged skilled choosers, Disconnected local chooses and Semi-skilled choosers
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What is a privileged skilled chooser?
Mainly professional middle-class parents who used their economic or cultural capital to gain educational capital for their children. they had time to visit schools and knew how the admissions system worked, they had the money and more children around
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What is a disconnected local chooser?
Working class parents who had restricted choice because they have a lack of economic and cultural capital. they don't understand the admissions system and the distance and cost of travel placed restrictions on their choice of school
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What is a semi-skilled chooser?
Mainly working class, they were ambitious for their children, they lacked cultural capital and found it hard to understand the education market, so they looked to other options
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What did Gewirtz conclude?
That in practice, middle-class parents possess cultural and economic capital and have more choice than working class parents
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What is cultural capital?
Knowledge, attitudes, values, language and ability of middle-class.
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What do privileged skilled choosers and disconnected local choosers support the idea of?
That marketisation reinforces inequality between social classes
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When was Tony Blair prime minister and what party did he support?
1997 on wards and he was part of the conservative government
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What did Blair introduce?
Free school meals
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What did Blair reduce?
Primary school class sizes
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Why did Blair introduce these policies?
To help reduce inequality
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What did the Education Action Zone provide?
Additional resources
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What was the Aim Higher Programme?
Raise aspirations of groups under represented in in Higher Education (working-class students)
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What is the Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA)?
Payments to students from low income families to encourage them to stay on after 16 to gain better qualifications
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What did EMA increase?
Funding for state education
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What did City Academies support?
Struggling inner city schools with majority working-class pupils.
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What did Benn see a contradiction in?
New Labour's policies to tackle inequality and also its commitment to marketisation ('New Labour Paradox')
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Why were EMAs introduced?
To help working class pupils but they also introduced tuition fees for higher education
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What didn't they abolish?
Fee-paying private schools
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What were the 2010 coalition policies for academies?
All schools should be academies, funding was directly given to schools, 2012- over half of schools were academies
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What were the 2010 coalition policies for free schools?
Funded by the state, run by anyone and there was lots of choice
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When was David Cameron in power until?
2016
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What did Cameron say would happen to schools by 2020?
All schools will be forced to be academies
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Cameron said that head teachers will have more?
Pay
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What did Cameron say teachers pay will be based on?
Students results
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What did Cameron want to raise?
Educational standards
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What party does Jeremy Corbyn support?
The Labour Party
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Why does Corbyn disagree with the conservative government?
He doesn't support marketisation
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What did Corbyn say it is immoral for?
'Super heads' to be paid their income
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Corbyn said that teachers and pupils do not benefit from what?
The conservative policies
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What perspective does Corbyn have on education?
Marxist view
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Who is the current Prime Minister
Theresa May
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What does May want to bring back?
Grammar schools and get rid of free school meals- which has not yet been agreed
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What did May give no extra funding to?
School budgets even though they are growing
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do Ball and Whitty examine?

Back

How marketisation reproduces and legitimates inequality through; exam league tables and the funding formula

Card 3

Front

What does publishing exam league tbales ensure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does schools being more selective result in?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which pupils get the best education?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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