AQA A Level Sociology / Educational Policies

What does educational policy mean?
Plans, strategies and instructions introduced by the government
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What are some of the responses of educational policies?
Equal Opportunities, Selection and choice, Control of education and Marketisation and Privatisation
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Who was able to afford education pre-1870's/industrialisation and why? How was the poor educated?
The middle class was able to afford fee paying education as there was no state schools. However, there were some churches and charities that provided education for the poor.
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What is the Forster Education Act 1870? What did this act provide?
Industrialisation increase needed an educated workforce. The state introduced elementary education for 5-10 year olds and made it compulsory to attend until aged 10. The curriculum offered Reading, Writing, Arithmetic and Religion.
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What are the four R's of the Forster Education Act of 1870?
Reading, Writing, Arithmetic and Religion.
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What was the Butler Education Act of 1940?
Provided free education for all between 5-15 years. Introduced the tripartite system.
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What is the Education Act of 1944?
Established three types of secondary school – Grammar, Technical and Secondary Modern.
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What did the three types of secondary education provide?
Grammer Schools provided an academic education. Technical schools provided a more vocational education. Secondary Modern schools provided basic education where pupils were not expected to sit exams.
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State some criticisms of the Education Act of 1944?
Pupil’s ‘intelligence level’ was not fixed at 11, ‘late developers’ missed out on the opportunity to get into a grammar school and sit exams // Those who attended secondary moderns were effectively labelled as failures.
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What did the 11+ exams legitimise?
Class inequality.
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What is the Comprehensive System? Which party abolished the 11+ exams?
The comprehensive system was introduced in 1965. The New Labour government abolished the 11+ in aims to stop inequality.
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How do functionalist see the comprehensive system?
Functionalist see it as meritocratic as it gives pupils longer to develop by not being selected at 11 and mixing children of different social classes would increase social solidarity.
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How do Marxists see the comprehensive system?
They see it as reproducing inequality through streaming and labelling by making everyone look like they have an equal opportunity aka reaffirming the 'myth of meritocracy'
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What is the Education Reform Act of 1988?
The Conservative government sought to introduce a market into the education system. They wanted more consumer choice and competition between schools.
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What does Parentocracy of the Education Reform Act include?
Publication of league tables an OFSTED Reports // Open-enrolment, allowing successful schools to recruit more pupils // Formula Funding
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What is Formula Funding? What does this mean for students?
Formula Funding is where schools receive the same amount of funding for each pupil. FF meant that student become more attractive to schools than other as they are likely to achieve higher grades.
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Which perspective favoured marketisation? and why?
The New Right arguing that successful schools will thrive whilst failing schools will 'go out of business'
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What does Ball say about marketisation?
Reinforces existing inequalities between social classes.
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What does Bartlett argue about marketisation?
Because parents are attracted to schools with good league ranking it encourages school to cream skimming and silt shifting which reproduced class inequality.
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How does the Funding Formula base schools on how many pupils they attract?
Popular schools get more funds thus recruiting better teachers and better facilities. Their popularity allows them to be more selective, attracting more able and ambitious middle-class applicants. Unpopular schools funding is further reduced.
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What did the Institute of Public Policy Research find?
Competition surrounding education systems produced more segregation between children of different social backgrounds.
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What policies did the New Labour between 1997-2010 introduce? and why?
The New Labour maintained marketisation policies to reduce inequalities. E.g. City Academies, Education Action Zones, Education Maintenance Allowance for poorer 16-18 year olds and increased spending on state education.
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What are some criticisms of the New Labour policies?
Policies are contradictory e.g. EMA's help poorer students but no have to pay tuition fees for university / NL left private education system untouched / the education market ensues w/c students remain disadvantaged.
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From 2010, what did the coalition government aim to do in regards of the education? And what have they been influenced by?
Move away from a comprehensive run by local authorities. Policies have been influenced by neoliberal ideas about reducing the role of the state through marketisation and privatisation. / Take away control from the state and give it to the parents.
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The Coalition Government: Why are schools encouraged to become? and what does this mean for local authorities?
Schools are encouraged to become academies funded by the central government. Removinf academies from local authority control means loss of democratic accountability.
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The Coalition Government: Who are the free schools run be?
Free schools are state funded but set up and run by parents, teachers, religious groups or business
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The Coalition Government: State evaluation of free schools
Free schools reproduce inequality, they take fewer disadvantaged pupils and research indicates that only children from educated families benefit.
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The Coalition Government: What does Ball argue about fragmented centralisation?
We now have a fragmented patchwork instead of the comprehensive system which leads to greater inequality. Education is now centralised: governemnt can require schools to become academies and allow free schools to be set up.
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The Coalition Government: What does the spending cuts in the government result in?
Cuts have cancelled out the Pupil premium schools recieve for disadvantage pupils thus resulting in educational achievement.
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State a criticism of the Coalition government in regards to free schools
Allen looked at how free schools operate in Sweden and the USA and found that educational standards fell and international rankings were lost.
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The Privatisation of Education: What did Ball argue in terms of education as a privatised commodity?
Education is ceasing to be public good. The education system becomes a source of profit for capitalists, including schools buildings, OFSTED inspections and running the entire LEA's. Hall see's this as the long march of the neoliberal revolution.
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The Privatisation of Education: What does the Globalisation of educational policy mean?
Many education companies are foreign owned. Some edu-businesses work overseas, privatising and exporting UK education policy for sale abroad. Nation-states are becoming less important in policy making, which is becoming globalised.
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The Privatisation of Education: What does the Cola-isation of schools mean?
The private sector sells pupils through vending machines in schools, develops brand loyalty through logos, sponsorships and Voucher schemes. However, the benefits to schools are often limited.
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Try answering: To what extent have policies raised standards in education?
Hints: Marketisation, league tables. What are the impacts of these?
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Try answering: To what extent have policies improved equality of opportunity?
Hint: The comprehensive system. What do functionalist think about this? What does it promote?
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Try answering: How is globalisation affecting education and educational policy?
Hint: Increase jobs abroad, National Curriculum.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are some of the responses of educational policies?

Back

Equal Opportunities, Selection and choice, Control of education and Marketisation and Privatisation

Card 3

Front

Who was able to afford education pre-1870's/industrialisation and why? How was the poor educated?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the Forster Education Act 1870? What did this act provide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the four R's of the Forster Education Act of 1870?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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