Education Theorists

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  • Created by: Jo Saul
  • Created on: 15-05-14 13:10
Durkheim - Functionalist
He said that education passes on norms and values in order to integrate individuals into society.
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Parsons - Functionalist
He believed school was a bridge between family and adult roles of society. Schools pass on a universal value of achievement. He argued that education selects children into appropriate roles because it's meritocratic.
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Davis and Moore (1945) - Functionalist
They say that every society sorts its members into different positions. They think that there are rule for how education does this - called "principles of stratification".
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Althusser - Neo Marxist
He saw education as part of the "ideological state apparatus". (it's a tool of capitalism which is used to pass on the belief that society is fair.
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Bowles and Gintis (1976) - Marxist
They believed that there was a close link between school and work, and that there's a correspondence between pupil experiences of school and work.
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Willis (1977)
He believed that education dosen't turn out an obedient workforce. Some kids form anti-school subculture and cope with school and then adult work by mucking about.
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Illich (1971)
He wanted to get rid of school completely as he believed they didn't create equality or develop creativity.
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Becker (1971) and Keddie (1971)
They both say that teachers tend to evaluate pupils in terms of an ideal student, by looking at appearance, personality, speech and social class.
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Ball (1981)
He found that the pupils in the top bands were from higher social classes.
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Hargreaves (1975)
He found that those in the bottom streams were more likely to be non-comformist.
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Halsey (1980)
He found that the most important factor preventing working class students staying on at school was a lack of financial support.
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Douglas (1964)
He found that children in unsatisfactory living conditions didn't do very well in ability tests compared to kids from comfortable backgrounds.
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Sugarman (1970)
He found that pupils from non-manual backgrounds and manual backgrounds have different outlooks. Manual background = immediate gratification. Non-manual background = deferred gratification.
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Hyman (1967)
He said that the values of the working class are a self-imposed barrier to improving their position. He said that the working class tend to place a low value on education.
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Bernstein (1970)
He found that working class pupils in the East End of London weren't comfortable with the style of language required by school. (Retricted code = working class. Elaborate code = Upper classes)
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Gillbourn (1990)
He found that teachers sometimes negatively label black students and have high expectations for Asian students.
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Coard (1971)
Believed black students were made to feel inferior in British schools.
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Mirza (1992)
Found that black girls had positive self-esteem and high aspirations.
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Fuller (1980)
Found that Afro-Caribbean girls in London resisted negative labelling and worked hard to gain success.
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Driver and Ballard (1981)
They found that Asian children whose first language was not English were as good at English as their classmates by the age of 16.
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Tikly (2005)
He found that the level of achievement for dual-heritage children is below average and that they are more likely to be excluded from school - especially if they're male.
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Mitsos and Browne (1998)
They believe that teaching has been feminised. Women are more likely to be classroom teachers, especially in primary schools.
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Swann and Graddol (1998)
They believe the high female achievement is a result of the quality of interation they have with their teachers.
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Jackson (1998)
Found that schools label boys negatively which becomes a self-fulfulling prophecy.
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Sue Sharpe (1994)
She found that girls' priorities have changed and that now they want careers and not just have a family.
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Archer (2006)
She argues that high-achieving Asian and Chinese girls get negatively labelled by teachers as robots who are incapable of independent thought.
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Kelly (1987)
Found that science is seen as a masculine subject in which boys dominate the classroom.
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Butler Act (1944)
Introduction of the Grammar School; Secondary Modern and; Technical school.
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1988 Reform Act
Marketisation of Education; OFSTED inspecitons; competition betweens schools; national curriculum and; more ability testing.
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Sure Start
It began in 1999 and was a government programme set up to improve early education and childcare in England for three to four year olds.
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Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA)
A scheme that would give up to £30 per week to students who stay in education after they're 16. It was means tested, so only available to children from a low income family.
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Chubb and Moe (1990)
They suggested a scheme under which parents would be given a voucher to pay for the education of their children.
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Card 2

Front

He believed school was a bridge between family and adult roles of society. Schools pass on a universal value of achievement. He argued that education selects children into appropriate roles because it's meritocratic.

Back

Parsons - Functionalist

Card 3

Front

They say that every society sorts its members into different positions. They think that there are rule for how education does this - called "principles of stratification".

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

He saw education as part of the "ideological state apparatus". (it's a tool of capitalism which is used to pass on the belief that society is fair.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

They believed that there was a close link between school and work, and that there's a correspondence between pupil experiences of school and work.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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