Education - Key Words

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Alienation
Where an individual or group feels socially isolated because they lack control and power to realise their true potential
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Banding
A form of streaming
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Collectivism (Sugarman)
valuing being a part of a group more than succeeding as an individual
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Colour-Blind teachers
teachers who believe all pupils are equal but in practice allow racism to go unchallenged
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Compensatory Education
government education policies that seek to tackle the problem of under-achievement by providing extra support and funding to schools and families in deprived areas
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Give 3 examples of Compensatory education
1) Aim Higher 2) Youth Action Zones 3) EMA
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Comprehensive schools
schools that are non-selective and where all children attend the same type of secondary school (introduced in 1965)
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Correlation
When two or more factors vary together; e.g low social class and low educational achievement
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Conformists (Sewell)
pupils who were keen to succeed, accepted the school’s values and had friends from other ethnic groups
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Correspondence theory (Bowles and Gintis')
concept describing the way that the organisation and control of schools mirrors or ‘corresponds to’ the workplace in capitalist society
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Example of correspondence theory
The control teachers exert over pupils mirrors the control managers exert over workers
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Cream-skimming
selecting higher ability students who gain the best results and cost less to teach
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Cultural Captial
the knowledge, attitudes, values, language, tastes and abilities that the middle class transmit to their children
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Cultural deprivation
the theory that many working class and black children are inadequately socialised and therefore lack the ‘right’ culture needed for educational success
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Cirriculum
Things taught in educational institutions. The official curriculum includes compulsory subjects and courses offered to pupils
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Deferred gratification
postponing immediate rewards or pleasures, with the aim of producing a greater reward at a later date. (m/c tend to instill this principle more)
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Deviance
behaviour that does not conform to the norms of society or group. It is a social construction meaning that it is created by social groups
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Differentiation
creating differences between individuals or groups - based on factors such as class, gender, and student ability
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Discrimination
Treating people differently whether negatively (disadvantage them) or positively (advantaging them) bc they are members of a particular group
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Educational Triage
the process whereby schools sort pupils into ‘hopeless cases’, ‘those who will pass anyway’ and ‘those with potential to pass’, and then concentrate their efforts on the last of these groups as a way to boost the school’s exam league position – sor
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Ethnocentric
Seeing or judging things in a biased way from the viewpoint of one culture
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Example of ethnocentricity
The national curriculum since it tends to value white, western culture and see others as inferior
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Elaborated code (Bernstein)
the speech code typically used by the middle class – has a wider vocabulary and is based on longer, grammatically more complex sentences
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Exam league tables
a table which ranks school’s exam performance based on exam results
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External factors
factors outside the education system such as the influence of home and family, background and wider society
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Fatalism
W/class value that is taught to children; ‘whatever will be will be’ and there is nothing you can do to change your status. (May explain underachievement)
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Feminisation of education
the belief that the school celebrates qualities more closely associated with girls, and introduced schemes to boost their achievement like GCSE +coursework) has stopped nurturing ‘masculine’ traits
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Funding formula
a policy which provides schools with money for each pupil they take on
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GIST
Girls Into Science and Technology – encourage girls to take up non-traditional careers in these sectors
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Globalization
the idea that the world is becoming increasingly interconnected and barriers are disappearing
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Hidden curriculum
The things that are learnt outside the formal education system often acquired through the everyday workings of the school such as obiedience, conformity and competiveness.
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Ideological state apparatus
Idea that school maintains the rule of the bourgeoisie by controlling people’s ideas, values and beliefs
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Immediate gratification (Sugarman)
a preference for immediate pleasure or reward without regard for the longer-term consequences
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Individualism
the belief that the individual is more important than the group or community – in modern society, actions are influenced more by calculations of their own self-interest than by a sense of obligation to others
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Innovators (Sewell) –
those pupils who were pro-education but anti-school. Only conform as far as school work was concerned
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Internal factors
factors within schools and the education system, such as interactions between teachers and pupils, and inequalities between schools
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Liberal chauvinists teachers
teachers who believed black pupils are culturally deprived and who have low expectations of them
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Labelling
The process of attaching a definition or meaning to a person or group.
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Legitimation
Justifying something to make it appear fair which is the main function of 'ideology'. (function of school is to promote inequality)
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Life chances
the chances that different social groups have of obtaining those things society regards as desirable (e.g qualifications) or suffering those things regarded as undesirable (e.g poverty)
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Marketisation
the policy of introducing market forces of supply and demand into areas run by the state. (e.g NHS and education)
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Material deprivation
poverty; a lack of basic necessities such as adequate diet, housing, clothing or the money to buy things. In education, the theory of material deprivation explains working-class underachievement as the result of the lack of suc
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Meritocracy
an educational or social system where everyone has an equal opportunity to succeed where individuals’ rewards and status are achieved by their own efforts rather than ascribed by their gender, class or ethnic group
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Myth of meritocracy
functionalists = education system is meritocratic, but Bowles and Gintis claim that the meritocracy is an ideology legitimating inequality by falsely claiming that everyone has equal opportunity and that unequal rewards
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New vocationalism
the idea that education should be about meeting the needs of the economy by equipping young people with the knowledge skills attitudes and values needed for work.
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New Right
A conservative political perspective who believe in self reliance and individual choice. (Believe in free markets and less welfare)
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Polarisation
A process resulting in two opposite extremes. E.g pupils responses to labeling can cause pro and anti school subcultures
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Present-time orientation (Sugarman)
seeing the present as more important than the future, so not having any long-term goals or plans
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Racism
a system of belief that defines people as superior or inferior and justifies the unequal treatment due to biological difference such skin colour.
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Rebels (Sewell)
pupils who rejected both the goals and the rules of the school, expressing their opposition through peer group membership
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Restricted code (Bernstein)
the speech code typically used by the w/c – limited vocab, short often unfinished grammatically simple sentences
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Retreatists (Sewell)
pupils who were disconnected from school and black subcultures
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Role allocation
where we are sifted and shorted into roles according to our ability, with the most able gaining access to higher rewarding jobs
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Selection
Process of allocating pupils to a particular class, stream, or school.
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Give an example of selction
The Tripartite system
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Self fulfilling prophecy
Where a prediction made about something/one become true simply bc it was said. E.g if teacher labels student as failure they'll be a failure
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Social Class
Social hierarchy based on differences in wealth, income or occupation. E.g Marx: bourgeoisie and proletariat
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Silt-shifting
off-loading pupils with learning difficulties, who are expensive to teach and get poor results
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Social control
the means by which society tries to ensure its members behave like they’re supposed to. Can either be informal or formal.
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Social solidarity
where members feel part of a community – education transmits society’s shared culture and beliefs
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Stereotype
a simple one sided and often negative image of a person or group which assumes that everyone in that group is the same. E.g labeling all black boys as disruptive
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Stigma
a negative label or mark of disapproval or shame attached to a group or a person, this is used to justify the exclusion of the individual from normal social interaction.
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Stratification
the division of society into distinct groups.
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Streaming
where children are separated into different ability groups or classes and are taught depending on the group that they are in
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Sub culture
a group of people with different attitudes morals beliefs and values than mainstream society.
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Universalistic standards
impersonal rules and standards that apply to everyone in school and wider society
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Vocational training
transmitting knowledge skills and attitudes needed for a particular career
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A form of streaming

Back

Banding

Card 3

Front

valuing being a part of a group more than succeeding as an individual

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

teachers who believe all pupils are equal but in practice allow racism to go unchallenged

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

government education policies that seek to tackle the problem of under-achievement by providing extra support and funding to schools and families in deprived areas

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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