Education Keywords and Theorists

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Gillborn and Youdell call the publishing league tables the A-C economy. This is a system in which schools ration their time, effort and resources, concentrating on those pupils they perceive as having the potential to get 5 A*-C at GCSE to boost th
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Academies are independent, state-funded schools, which receive their funding directly from central government, rather than through a local authority.
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Aim higher programme
Aimhigher was a national programme (in England) which aimed to widen participation and access in HE by raising awareness, aspirations and attainment among learners from under-represented groups.
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Compensatory Education
Government education policies such as Operation Headstart, that seek to tackle the problem of underachievement by providing extra support and funding to schools and families in deprived areas
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Corrospondence Principle
Bowles and Gintis' concept describing the way organisation and control of schools mirrors the workplace in capitalist society.
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Cultural Capital
The knowledge, attitudes, values, language, taste and abilities that the middle class transmit to their children. Bourdieu argues that educational success is largely due to the possession of cultural capital.
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Those things taught or learnt in educations institutions. The overt or official curriculum includes subjects and courses offered.
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Deffered Gratification
Postpronning immediate rewards or pleasures, generally with the aim of producing a greater reward at a later date. This is seen as a characteristic of middle class culture.
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Seeing, judgeing something in a biased way from the view point of a certain culture. Eg, the national curriculum is said to be ethnocontric, hence the difference in ethnicity and success in education.
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Hidden Curriculum
All those things learnt without being formally taught and often aquired simply through the everyday working of the school, such as attitudes, obedience and competitiveness.
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An organisation or social structure based on a pyramid of senior and junior postitions and top-down control.
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Valuing being part of a group more than succeeding as an indivdual
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Compensatory education
Government education policies such as operation head start, that seek to tackle the problem of under achievement by providing schools with more funding and also helping families in deprived areas
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Comprehensive system
A school which accepts all students, regardless of background or ability.
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Consumer Choice
Consumer choice refers to the decisions that consumers make with regard to products and services. When we study consumer choice behavior, we examine how consumers decide which products to purchase or consume over time.
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Correspondence Principle
Bowels and Gintis concept describing the way organisation and control of schools mirrors the workplace in a capitalist society.
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Cultural Capital
The knowledge, attitudes, values, language, taste and abilities that the middle class transmit to their children.
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Cultural deprivation
The idea that some young people fail in education due to deficiencies in there home and cultural background.
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The process of providing different work to different aptitudes in mixed ability.
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Double standard
Double standard is a cultural practice that accords less freedom and choice to one sex. This double standard of conduct was once severely oppressive to women, but has reduced relevance in western societies
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Education action zone
Are areas of extreme deprivation and poverty, schools in these areas are given more money than other areas.
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Education Maintenance allowances
Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA); LCA) is a financial scheme applicable to students and those undertaking unpaid work-based learning in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland and aged between sixteen and nineteen
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Educational and Economic capital
The term educational capital is a concept that expands upon the theoretical ideas of French sociologist and anthropologist Pierre Bourdieu who applied the notion of capital to social capital, cultural capital, and symbolic capital.
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Educational Triage
Educational triage is the process by which students are sorted due to marketization policies, they are either the no hopers (wont achieve a grade C or above) the C/D borderline, who achieve support or the students who will achieve the grade
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Elaborated code
The speech code typically used by the middle class, which has a wider vocabulary and is based on longer grammatical sentences.
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Seeing, judging something in a biased way from the viewpoint of a certain culture. Eg, National Curriculum.
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External Factors
Factors outside the education system such as the influence of home and family, background and wider society.
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A belief in fate- that whatever will be will be and there is nothing you can do to change your status.
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Focal socialising agency
Meritocracy Education is the „focal socialising agency in modern society. (secondary socialisation) Within the family status is ascribed- fixed by birth Within schools it is earned or achieved.
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A type of industrial production based on detailed division of labour, using closely supervised low skilled workers
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Free Schools
(in England) a school set up by an organization or a group of individuals, funded by the government but not controlled by the local authority.
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Funding Formula
A policy which provides schools with money for each pupil they take on
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The idea that the world is becoming increasingly interconnected and barriers are disapperaring
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Can be described as a system of structure, structuring dispositions […] which is constituted in practice and is always oriented towards practical functions
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Ideal Pupil
It refers to the image that a teacher has in their head of the pupil that they would most like to teach. The pupil generally conforms to the social grouping of the teacher, (middle class), and then lower classes or ethnic minorities are disadvantaged
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Ideological Sate apparatus
Maintaining the rules of the bourgeoisie by controlling peoples ideas values and beliefs.
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Immediate Gratification
A preference for immediate pleasure or reward without regard for the longer term consequences. A value of lower class society.
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Ingratiation is a psychological technique in which an individual attempts to become more attractive or likeable to their target.
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Institutional racism
Institutional racism is a pattern of social institutions — such as governmental organizations, schools, banks, and courts of law — giving negative treatment to a group of people based on their race.
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Internal Factors
Factors within schools and the education system, such as interactions between teacher and pupils and inequalities between schools.
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The process of attracting a definition or meaning to an individual or group- often the label is a stereotype that defines all members of a group in the same way
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League Tables
League table is a term used to refer to ranking of higher education institutions or programs of study.
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Male gaze
The male gaze, coined by feminist film critic Laura Mulvey, is the way visual arts depict the world and women from a masculine point of view and in terms of men's attitudes.
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Where services like health and education that were previously run by the state become subjected to competition and consumer choice.
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Material Deprivation
Lack of money leads to disadvantage such as unhealthy diet, poor housing and lack of educational resources.
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government or the holding of power by people selected according to merit. So gaining the reward you deserve.
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Moral Panic
An instance of public anxiety or alarm in response to a problem regarded as threatening the moral standards of society.
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Myth of meritocracy
Functionalists argue that the education system is meritocratic but Bowles and Gintis claims that the meritocracy is an ideology legitimating inequality by falsely claiming that everyone has equal opportunity.
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National Curriculum
Subjects an subject content which must be studied by all children in state schools in an attempt to standardize education provision.
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New Vocationalism
The idea that education should be about meeting the needs of the economy by equipping them with knowledge skills and attitudes and values needed for work.
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Parental choice
At a minimum, parental choice means giving parents the right to choose the specific public schools their children attend, rather than having them assigned to the school based on place of residence.
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A parentocracy is a system in which a child's education must conform to the wealth and wishes of parents rather than the abilities and efforts of the pupil, in contrast to a meritocracy, which distributes educational and financial rewards.
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A process which results in the creation of two opposite extremes.
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A type of industrial production. A highly skilled adaptable skilled workforce combined with technology allows production to change to consumer demands.
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Privatisation is the process of transferring an enterprise or industry from the public sector to the private sector. The public sector is the part of the economic system that is run by government agencies.
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Pupil Premium
The pupil premium is additional funding for publicly funded schools in England to raise the attainment of disadvantaged pupils and close the gap between them and their peers.
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Pupils who rejected both the goals and the rules of the school, expressing their opposition through peer group membership.
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Repressive sate apparatus
Maintain rules of the bourgeoisie by force of threat of it
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Restricted Code
The speech code typically used by the W/C- Limited vocab often short unfinished grammatically simple sentences
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Pupils who were disconnected from school and black subcultures.
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Role Allocation
The system of allocating people to roles which suit their aptitudes and capabilities.
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The process of choosing and allocating pupils to a particular school in tripartite system after 1944.
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Self-fulfilling prophecy
The process whereby people act in response to prediction of the way they will behave, thus making the prediction come true.
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Social solidarity
Integration of people in a society through shared values, morals, beliefs and a common culture.
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Speech Skills
Patterns or ways of using language. Bernstein argues that working class only uses the context bound restricted code and the middle class uses the context free elaborated code.
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A simple one sided and often negative image of a group or person which assumes everyone in the group is the same.
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When children are separated into different ability groups or classes and then each ability group taught separately.
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Sure Start
Sure Start is a government programme which provides a range of support services for parents and children under the age of four, who live in disadvantaged areas across Northern Ireland. It aims to support parents.
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Symbolic Capital
Can be referred to as the resources available to an individual on the basis of honor, prestige or recognition, and serves as value that one holds within a culture.
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Tripartite System
The system of secondary education created in 1944 based on 3 types of schools grammar, technical and secondary modern.
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Verbal abuse
Verbal abuse (also known as reviling or " verbal bullying") is described as a negative defining statement told to the victim or about the victim, or by withholding any response, thereby defining the target as non-existent.
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Key Theorists relating to Education
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Emile Durkheim (1903) Functionalism
He is the founder of functionalism. He identified two main functions of education. These are creating social solidarity and teaching specialist skills.
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Emile Durkheim Social Solidarity
Durkheim argues that society needs a sense of solidarity, that its individual members must feel themselves to be part of a single body or community. He argues without social solidarity social life and cooperation would be impossible.
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Emile Durkheim Specialist skills
Modern industrial economies have a complex divison of labour where the production of even a single item usually involves the cooperation of many different specialists.This cooperation promotes social solidarity.
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Melvin Tumin (1953) Functionalism
Criticises Davis and Moore for putting forward a circular argument: How do we know a job is important, Answer: because its highly rewarded. Why are some jobs more highly rewarded? Answer: because they are more important.
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Dennis Wrong (1961) Interactionist
Argues that functionalists have an 'over-socialised view' of people as mere puppets to society. Functionalists wrongly imply that pupils passively accept all they are taught and never reject the school's values.
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Neoliberals and New Right
Argue that the state education system fails to prepare young people adequately for work.
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Is a economic doctrine that has had a major influence on education policy. They argue that the state should not provide service such as education health and welfare. They have influenced governments since 1979.
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Is based on the idea that the state must not dictate to individuals how to dispose of their own property and should not try to regulate a free- Market economy. So governments should instead encourage competition, privatise state run businesses.
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Believe the value of education lies in how well it enables the country in the global marketplace. They claim that this can only be achieved if schools become more like businesses, empowering parents and pupils as consumers and using competition.
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New Right
Is a conservative political view that incorporates neoliberal economic ideas. They believe that the state cannot meet peoples needs and that people are best left to meet their own needs through free market.
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New Right
They argue that the state education systems take a 'one size fits all' approach, imposing uniformity and disregarding local needs. The local consumers have no say. Therefore the system is unresponsive and inefficient.
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New Right
They believe schools waste money or get poor results are not answerable to their consumers. This means lower standards of achievement for pupils, and a less qualified workforce and less prosperous work force.
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New Right solution
They believe the solution is marketisation of education. They believe that competition between schools and empowering consumers will bring greater diversity, choice and efficiency to schools and increase the schools ability to meet the needs.
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Chubb and Moe Consumer choice (1990) New Right
They argue that the state run education in the united states has failed for 3 reasons.
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Chubb and Moe 1
It has not created equal opportunity and has failed the needs of disadvantaged groups.
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Chubb and Moe 2
It is inefficient because it fails to produce pupils with skills needed by the economy.
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Chubb and Moe 3
Private schools deliver higher quality education because unlike state schools they are answerable to paying consumers- the parents.
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Gerwirtz (1995) AND Ball (1994)
Both argue that competition between schools benefits the middle class who can use their cultural and economic capital to gain access to more desirable schools
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Academies are independent, state-funded schools, which receive their funding directly from central government, rather than through a local authority.

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Aim higher programme


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Compensatory Education


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Corrospondence Principle


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