Education Key Words

HideShow resource information
What does alienation mean?
Where an individual or group feels socially isolated because they lack power to control their lives and realise their full potential.
1 of 46
What does Bourgeoisie mean?
Marxist term for the capitalist class, the owners and the means of production. Marxists argue that the bourgeoisie exploit the working class (the proletariats)
2 of 46
What does compensatory education mean?
Government education policies that seek to tackle the problem of underachievement by providing extra support and funding to schools and families.
3 of 46
What is a comprehensive system?
A non-selective education system where all children attend the same type of secondary school. Introduced in England and Wales in 1965
4 of 46
What is Critical Race Theory?
Sees racism as a deep-seated feature of society resulting not just from individuals attitudes but from institutional racism. Argues that racism can't be removed merely by passing laws but requires direct action by oppressed groups.
5 of 46
What is cultural capital?
The knowledge, attitudes, values, language, abilities and money that the middle class transmit to their children.
6 of 46
What is cultural deprivation?
Lacking knowledge and socialisation needed for educational success. Usually working class and black children
7 of 46
What does Curriculum mean?
Things taught or learnt in educational institutions.
8 of 46
What is deferred gratification?
Postponing immediate rewards or pleasures, with the aim of producing a greater reward on a later date. Seen as a characteristic of the middle class culture.
9 of 46
What does differentiation mean?
Distinguishing or creating differences between individuals or groups. Setting and streaming is a form of differentiation.
10 of 46
What does discrimination mean?
Treating people differently, whether negatively or positively, usually because they are members of a particular social group.
11 of 46
What is educational triage?
The process where schools sort pupils into 'hopeless cases', 'those who will pass anyway' and then those who have 'the potential to pass' and then concentrate their efforts on the last group as a way to boost the schools exam league table position
12 of 46
What does ethnic group mean?
People who share the same heritage, culture and identity often including the same language and religion and they see themselves as a distinct group.
13 of 46
What does ethnocentric mean?
Seeing or judging things in a biased way from the viewpoint of a particular culture.
14 of 46
What are gender domains?
Tasks and activities that boys and girls see as then 'territory' of their respective genders. Children's beliefs about gender domains are shaped by early experiences and adult expectations.
15 of 46
What is a habitus?
A concept introduced by Bourdieu, it refers to the learned and taken for granted ways of thinking, acting and being shared by a particular social class or group.
16 of 46
What is the hidden curriculum?
Things that are sub-conciusly learnt within the education that aren't on the national curriculum, for example punctuality.
17 of 46
What is the ideal pupil?
An image held by teachers of the kind of pupil they prefer to teach, hardworking, bright, cooperative etc. These pupils tend to be white, middle-class children.
18 of 46
What is immediate gratification?
Seeking immediate pleasure or reward, without regarding the long-term consequences. This is a working-class mentality according to cultural deprivation theorists.
19 of 46
What is labelling?
Process of attaching a definition to a pupil or group e.g 'trouble maker' which could lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy.
20 of 46
What are life chances?
The chances that different social groups have of obtaining those things society regards as desirable or of suffering those things regarded as undesirable.
21 of 46
What is marketisation?
Policy of introducing market forces into areas run by the state, increasing competition between schools within an area, which creates a greater choice for parents.
22 of 46
What is material deprivation?
Where an individual lacks basic necessities such as adequate housing or diet which could limit their abilities to achieve in the education system
23 of 46
What is meritocracy?
An education or social system where everyone has an equal opportunity to succeed and where individuals rewards and status are achieved by their own efforts rather than ascribed.
24 of 46
What does multi-cultural mean?
A society or institution that recognises and gives value to different cultures and ethnic groups.
25 of 46
What is new vocationalism?
The idea that education should be primarily about meeting the needs of the economy, by equipping young people with skills, knowledge and attitudes for work.
26 of 46
What is parentocracy?
The concept that parents now have the opportunity to choose and have a say in their child's education.
27 of 46
What is privatisation?
The transfer of industries or services previously owned by the state to owner hips of private businesses who run them to make a profit.
28 of 46
What does proletariat mean?
The working class in the capitalist society. They own no means of production and are 'wage slaves' forced to sell their labour power to the bourgeoisie in order to survive.
29 of 46
What is racism?
A system of beliefs that defines people as superior or inferior, and justifies their unequal treatment, on the basis of biological differences such as skin colour.
30 of 46
What does reserve army of labour mean?
Marxist concept describing groups who can be brought into the workforce when there is a labour shortage as the capitalist economy expands during a boom, and discarded when it contracts.
31 of 46
What is a self-fulfilling prophecy?
Where an individual lives up to the expectation of what they may have been labelled because they have been called it so much. For example, if a child was labelled a trouble maker they may end up becoming one.
32 of 46
What is sexism?
Prejudice and discrimination on the grounds of sex.
33 of 46
What is social class?
Social groupings or social hierarchies based on differences in wealth, income or occupation.
34 of 46
What is social control?
The means by which society tries to ensure that its members behave as others expect them to.
35 of 46
What does socialisation mean?
The process by which an individual or internalises the culture of society.
36 of 46
What are speech codes?
Patterns or ways of using language. Bernstein argued working class use a restricted speech code and the middle class use an elaborate speech code.
37 of 46
What does status mean?
A position in society. Can be either ascribed or achieved.
38 of 46
What is a stereotype?
A simplified, one-sided and often negative image of a group or individual which assumes that all members of that group share the same characteristics.
39 of 46
What is streaming?
Where children are separated into different ability groups or classes, and then each ability group is taught separately from the others for al subjects
40 of 46
What is a subculture?
a group of people within society who share norms, values, beliefs and attitudes that are in some ways different from or opposed to the mainstream culture.
41 of 46
What does symbolic capital mean?
A concept introduced by Bourdieu which refers to the status, recognition and sense of worth we are able to obtain from others, especially those of a similar class position to us.
42 of 46
What is symbolic violence?
Concept introduced by Bourdieu. It refers to the harm done by denying someone symbolic capital.
43 of 46
What is the tripartite system?
The system of secondary education created in 1944 based on three types of schools. The 11+ exam was used to place pupils in these schools.
44 of 46
What does underclass mean?
Those at the lowest level of class structure, a class below the working class with a separate, deviant subculture and lifestyle.
45 of 46
What does value consensus mean?
An agreement among society's members about what values are important creating a shared culture.
46 of 46

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Marxist term for the capitalist class, the owners and the means of production. Marxists argue that the bourgeoisie exploit the working class (the proletariats)

Back

What does Bourgeoisie mean?

Card 3

Front

Government education policies that seek to tackle the problem of underachievement by providing extra support and funding to schools and families.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A non-selective education system where all children attend the same type of secondary school. Introduced in England and Wales in 1965

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Sees racism as a deep-seated feature of society resulting not just from individuals attitudes but from institutional racism. Argues that racism can't be removed merely by passing laws but requires direct action by oppressed groups.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

LauraEC

this was very helpful especially for those 2 mark questions. thanks !

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Education resources »