Class differences in achievement: key studies and findings

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Barry Sugarman
4 key features that act as barriers
1 of 26
Basil Bernstein
Language codes
2 of 26
Leon Feinstein
4 ways M/C parents can give their children an advantage through socialisation
3 of 26
Pierre Bordieu
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Marilyn Howard
Young people from poorer homes have poorer nutrition
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Jo Blanden and Stephen Machin
Young children from low income families are more likely to engage in externalising behaviour
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Richard Wilkinson
Among 10 y/o children, the lower the social class, the higher the rate of hyperactivity, anxiety and conduct disorders
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Emily Tanner et al
The costs of education are a heavy burden on poor families
8 of 26
Teresa Smith and Michael Noble
Poverty acts as a barrier to learning in other ways
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Diane Reay
W/C students are more likely to apply to local universities
10 of 26
Claire Callendar and Jon Jackson
W/C students are more debt averse
11 of 26
Louise Archer
Nike identities are a way of W/C pupils generating symbolic capital
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Sarah Evans
W/C pupils are reluctant to apply to elite universities and universities away from home
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Many W/C people think of elite universities as being 'not for the likes of us' because it is part of their habitus to think this way
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Reay et al
This self-exclusion narrows the options for W/C students and therefore limits their success
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Nicola Ingram
Having a W/C identity is inseparable to belonging to a W/C locality
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Louise Archer
For W/C pupils to be educationally successful, they have to go through a process of losing themselves
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Stephen Ball
Abolishing streaming
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Peter Woods
Other pupil responses
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Colin Lacey
Differentiation and polarisation
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Robert Rosenthal and Leonora Jacobson
1968 study of a community elementary school in California
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David Gillborn and Deborah Youdell
Publishing exam league tables creates the A-C economy, which leads to educational triage
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Mairead Dunne and Louise Gazeley
Schools persistently produce W/C underachievement
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Ray Rist
Teachers use information from children's home backgrounds and appearance to place them in separate groups
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Amelia Hempel-Jorgensen
The image of the 'ideal pupil' varies according to the social class make-up of the school
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Howard Becker
Teachers judge pupils according to how closely they fit the image of the 'ideal pupil'
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Language codes


Basil Bernstein

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4 ways M/C parents can give their children an advantage through socialisation


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Card 5


Young people from poorer homes have poorer nutrition


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