What are external factors?
Are factors outside of the education system such as the influence of home and family background
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How might social class background have a big influence on a childs chance of success?
Children from m/c families on average perform better than w/c children & class gap in achievement grows wider as children get older
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Outline some statistics on private schools
Educate roughly 7% of Britains children, they account for nearly half of all students entering universities such as Oxford/Cambridge
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What did Sutton Trust find?
In a three-year period one private school alone sent 211 pupils to Oxbridge while over 1,300 state schools sent no pupils at all to these units
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What did a Nationwide study by Centre for Longitudinal Studies find in regards to class differences in children development appearing very early in life?
That by age 3, children from disadvantaged backgrounds are already up ton one year behind those from more privileged homes
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How might primary socialisation in the family play a role?
As most of us begin to acquire the basic values, attitudes & skills that are needed for educational success through this
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What did Hubbs-Tait et al find?
Where parents use language the challenge their children to evaluate their own understanding, cognitive performance improves
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What about less educated parents?
Tend to use language in ways that only require children to make simple descriptive statements which results in lower performance
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What does Berstein identify?
Differences between w/c and m/c language as there are two types of speech code: restricted code & elaborated code
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What is the restricted code?
Is typically used by the w/c, has limited vocabulary and is based on use of short, grammatically simple sentences
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What is the elaborated code?
Typically used by m/c, wider vocabulary and is based on longer, grammatically more complex sentences
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What do these differences in speech code give?
M/C children an advantage at school as the elaborated code is used by teachers, textbooks & exams
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What did Douglas' study find?
That w/c parents placed less value on education & as a result they were less ambitious for their children, gave them less encouragement & took less interest in their education
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What does Feinstein argue?
That since m/c parents tend to be better educated they can give their children an advantage by how they socialise them
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What does educated parents' parenting style emphasise?
Consistent discipline & high expectations of their children which supports achievement by encouraging active learning & exploration
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What about less education parents' parenting style?
Marked by harsh & inconsistent discipline that emphasises 'doing as you are told'
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What did Bernstein & Young find?
That m/c mothers are more likely to buy educational toys, books & activists that encourage reasoning skills & stimulate intellectual development. Also better understanding of nutrition & importance of Childs development
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What does Keddie describe cultural deprivation as?
A myth and see it as a victim-blaming explanation and dismisses the idea that failure at school can be due to being culturally deprived at home as child cannot be deprived of its own culture
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What does Keddie believe about w/c children?
They fail because they are put at a disadvantage by an education system dominated by m/c values
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What does material deprivation refer to?
Poverty is linked to educational underachievement for example, Department of Education found barely a third of all pupils eligible for school meals achieved 5 or more GCSEs A*-C
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How can overcrowding have a direct effect on a Childs education?
Makes it harder for child to study which means less room for educational activities, nowhere to do homework, disrupted sleep from sharing bedrooms etc.
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How can poor housing have an indirect effect on a Childs education?
In crowded homes children run the risk of accidents and families in temporary accommodation tend to suffer more psychological distress, infections & accidents
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What does Howard note about diet & health?
Young people from poorer homes have lower intakes of energy, vitamins & minerals. Poor nutrition affects health e.g. by weakening the immune system & lowering a Childs energy levels
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What does going to uni usually involve?
Getting into debt to cover the cost of tuition fees, books & living expenses
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What do attitudes towards debt stop?
w/c students from going to uni
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What did a nationwide study find?
Study of 2,000 prospective undergraduate students Jackson et al found that w/c students are more debt averse and something to be avoided
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What did increases in tuition fees from 2012 cause?
Increase to a maximum of £9,000 a year increased the debt burden which discouraged even more w/c students from applying
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What did Reay find?
That w/c students were more likely to apply to local unis so could live at *** but this gave them less opportunity to go to higher status unis
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What does Bourdieu argue?
That both cultural & material factors contribute to educational achievement and are interrelated. Argues that m/c generally posses more of all three types of capital
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What does cultural capital refer to?
The knowledge, attitudes, values, language, tastes & abilities of m/c. Bourdieu sees m/c culture as a type of capital as like wealth it gives an advantage to those who possess it
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What does Bourdieu argue can happen through socialisation?
That m/c children acquire the ability to grasp, analyse & express abstract ideas and are more likely to develop intellectual interests which gives them an advantage in school
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What is educational & economic capital?
m/c children with cultural capital are better equipped to meet demands of school curriculum & gain qualifications. So wealthier parents can convert their economic capital into educational capital by sending their children to private schools
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How did Sullivan test Bourdieu's ideas?
Used questionnaires to conduct a survey of 465 pupils in four schools to asses their cultural capital. Asked them about reading, TV viewing habits, whether they visited museums, theatres, tested their vocabulary & knowledge of cultural figures
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What did Sullivan find?
That those who read complex fiction & watched serious TV documentaries developed a wider vocabulary & greater cultural knowledge, indicating greater cultural capital
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What are internal factors?
Factors within schools and education system such as interactions between pupils and teachers and inequalities between schools
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What is labelling?
To label someone is to attach a meaning/definition to them e.g. teachers may label a pupil as bright, thick, troublemaker, hardworking
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What do studies show?
That teachers often attach such labels regardless of pupils actual ability or attitude
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In Beckers interactionist study of labelling, based on interviews with 60 Chicago high school teachers what was found?
That they judged pupils according to how closely they fitted an image of the 'ideal pupil'. Teachers saw children from m/c backgrounds as closet to ideal and w/c furthest away
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Outline a study of labelling in primary schools
Two English schools by Hempel-Jorgensen
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What was found?
In largely w/c Aspen primary school, where staff said discipline was major problem, ideal pupil was defined as quiet, passive, obedient whereas in mainly m/c Rowan primary school with few discipline problems, ideal pupil = personality & academic abil
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Outline a study of labelling in secondary schools
Interviews in nine English state secondary schools by Dunne & Gazeley
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What was found?
Teachers normalised the underachievement of w/c pupils, seemed unconcerned by it & felt could do little about it whereas believed they could overcome underachievement of m/c
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Why was this?
Teachers labelled w/c parents as uninterested in children education & m/c as supportive. Teachers underestimated w/c pupils' potential & those who were doing well are seen as overachieving
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What is a self-fulfilling prophecy?
A prediction that comes true simply by it having been made. Interactionists argue labelling can affect pupils' achievement by creating a self-fulfilling prophecy
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Outline an example of self-fulfilling prophecy
Teacher labels a pupil e.g. very intelligent, Teacher treats pupil according to prediction e.g. giving them more attention & Pupil internalises teachers expectations so become pupil teacher believed them to be
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Outline Rosenthal & Jacobson's study of Oak Community school in California
Told school they had a test specially designed to identify pupils who would spurt ahead but was just an IQ test. Researches tested all pupils & picked 20% a pure random & told school these were sputters
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What was found when returning to school a year later?
Found that 47% of those identified as sputters had made significant progress.
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What do Rosenthal & Jacobson suggest?
That teachers' beliefs about pupils had been influenced by the test results which altered how they interacted with them
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What is streaming?
Involves separating children into different ability groups called streams with each ability group being taught separately from others for all subjects.
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Once streamed what is usually hard?
To move up to a higher stream as children are more or less locked into their teachers' low expectations of them
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What did Douglas find?
Children placed in a lower stream at 8 suffered a decline in IQ by age 11
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What did a study of two secondary schools by Gillborn & Youdell find?
Teachers are less likely to see w/c pupils as having ability so as a result these pupils are more likely to be placed in lower streams& entered for lower-tier GCSEs which denies them the knowledge & opportunity to good grades which widens class gap
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What do Gillborn & Youdell link streaming to?
Publishing exam league tables that rank each school according to its exam performance.
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What does publishing exam league tables create?
An 'A-to-C economy' in schools which is a system that schools focus their time & resources on pupils most likely to get five grade Cs
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What does the A-to-C economy produce?
Educational triage which schools categorise pupils into three types: those who will pass anyway, those with potential, hopeless cases
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What are w/c pupils most likely to be labelled as?
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What does the need to gain a good league table position drive?
Educational triage which becomes the basis for streaming where teachers' beliefs about the lack of ability of w/c pupils are used to segregate them into lower streams
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What is a pupil subculture?
A group of pupils who share similar values & behaviour patterns & often emerge as a response to the way pupils have been labelled
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What are the two explanations on how pupil subcultures develop?
Differentiation & Polarisation
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What is differentiation?
Process of teachers categorising pupils according to how they perceive their ability, attitude and/or behaviour - streaming is an example of this
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What is polarisation?
Process in which pupils respond to streaming by moving towards one of two opposite poles either anti-school or pro-school
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What do pupils placed in high streams tend to remain?
Committed to values of school & gain their status in approved manner through academic success. Values are those of school & tend to form a pro-school subculture
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What do those place in low streams suffer?
A loss of self-esteem and this label of failure pushes them to search for alternative ways of gaining status which usually goes against the schools values however, joining anti-school subculture as means of gaining status usually creates further issu
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What is a criticism of labelling theory?
Been accused of determinism as it assumes that pupils who are labelled have no choice but not fulfil the prophecy & fail but studies such as Fuller show this is not always true
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What do Marxists say about labelling theory?
It ignores the wider structures of power within which labelling takes place as the labelling theory tends to blame teachers for labelling pupils but fails to explain why they do
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What is a habitus?
Refers to the taken-for-granted ways of thinking, being and acting that are shared by certain social classes. Includes their tastes & preferences about lifestyles & consumption, their outlook on life & expectations about what is normal
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What does the m/c habitus have the power?
To define its habitus superior and impose it on the education system
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How can pupils gain symbolic capital?
As schools have m/c habitus, pupils who have been socialised at home into m/c tastes and preferences gain this
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What does the school devalue?
The w/c habitus, so that w/c pupils' tastes are deemed to be tasteless and worthless - symbolic violence which reproduces class structure & keeps lower classes in their palce
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What did Archer et al find?
That w/c pupils felt that to be educationally successful they would have to change how they spoke, presented themselves etc
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How have some pupils created self-worth, status & value?
Constructing meaningful class identities for themselves by investing in styles such as Nike. However, this led to conflict with schools dress code
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Outline Ingrams study
Of two-groups of w/c Catholic boys from same highly deprived neighbourhood in Belfast. One group passed 11+ exams and gone to grammar school while other failed exam and went to local secondary school
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What did the grammar/secondary school have?
Strongly m/c habitus of high expectations of academic achievement while the secondary had habitus of low expectations and underachievement
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What did Ingram find?
That having w/c identity was inseparable from belonging to w/c loyalty & neighbourhoods dense networks of family and friends were a key part of the boys habitus
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What are the variations of ethnic differences among Asians?
Indians do better than Pakistanis and Bangladeshis
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Outline a statistic of white pupils
Very close to national average, which isn't surprising considering they take up around 4/5 of all pupils
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What did Hastings say?
White pupils make less progress between 11-16 than black or Asian pupils and it is possible that whites may soon become worst performing ethnic group in the country
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What do cultural deprivation theorists argue?
That many children from low-income black families lack intellectual stimulation & enriching experiences which leaves them poorly equipped for school as they have been able to develop reasoning & problem-solving skills
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What do Bereiter & Englemann consider?
The language spoken by low-income black American families as inadequate for educational success and see it as ungrammatical, disjointed and incapable of expressing abstract ideas
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What about lack of motivation?
A major cause of the failure of many black children and as most children are socialised into mainstream culture which introduces ambition, competitiveness & willingness to make sacrifices needed to achieve long-term goals
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What are some black children socialised into?
A subculture that introduces a fatalistic, live for today attitude that doesn't value education
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What does Moynihan argue?
That due to many black families being headed by lone mother, their children are deprived of adequate care as she has to struggle financially in absence of male breadwinner
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What does fathers absence mean?
That boys lack an adequate role model of male achievement
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What does Moynihan see cultural deprivation as?
A cycle where inadequately socialised children from unstable families go on to fail at school & become inadequate parents themselves
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What does Sewell argue?
That its not absence of fathers as role models that leads to black boys underachieving instead, its a lack of fatherly nurturing which results in black boys finding it hard to overcome the emotional and behavioural difficulties of adolescence
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What part to street gangs play?
They offer black boys perverse loyalty and love which present boys with a media-inspired role model of anti-school black masculinity
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What are many black boys therefore subject of?
Powerful anti-educational peer group pressure
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What are w/c people more likely to face?
Poverty and material deprivation e.g. according to Palmer almost half of all ethnic minority children live in low-income households compared to quarter of white children
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What are ethnic workers more likely to be engaged in?
Shift work and Bangladeshi/Pakistani women are more likely than others to be engaged in low-paid homeworking
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Where do many ethnic minorities live?
In economically depressed areas with high unemployment, asylum seekers may not be allowed to take work & racial discrimination in labour market and housing market. Such inequalities are reflected in proportion of children from different ethnic groups
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What is there a danger of?
That we may over-estimate the effect of cultural deprivation & underestimate the effect of poverty & material deprivation but even Indian/Chinese pupils who are materially deprived still do better than most
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What does Rex show?
How racial discrimination leads to social exclusion & how this worsens the poverty faced by ethic minorities. E.g. housing discrimination means minorities are more likely to be forced into substandard accommodation than white people of same class
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Outline Wood et al study
Sent three closely matched job applications to 1,000 job vacancies. Came from fictitious applicants using names associated with different ethnic groups
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What did Wood et al find?
One in 16 ethnic minority applicants were offered an interview compared to one in 9 white applicants
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What did Gillborn & Youdell find in one local education authority?
Black children were highest achievers on entry to primary school yet by time it came to GCSE, they had the worst results of any ethnic group
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What do interactionist studies show?
That teachers often see black/Asian pupils as being far from ideal pupils. E.g. black pupils are often seen as disruptive and Asians as passive
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What did Gillborn & Youdell find in their study of the impact of labelling?
Teachers were quicker to discipline black pupils than others for same behaviour. Found teachers expected black pupils to present more discipline problems & misinterpreted their behaviour as threatening
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What does Osler think?
Black pupils appear more likely to suffer from unrecorded unofficial exclusions and internal exclusions where sent out of class
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Outline Wrights study
Completed a study of a multi-ethnic primary school that showed Asian pupils can be victims of teachers labelling. Found that despite schools apparent commitment to equal opportunities, teachers held ethnocentric views
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What does Archer say about pupil identities?
Teachers dominant discourse defines ethnic minority pupils' identities as lacking compared to ideal pupil
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What does Archer come up with?
Three different pupils: ideal pupil (white, m/c, masculines identity), pathologies pupil (Asian, feminised, asexual) & demonised (black/white, w/c, hyper-sexualised)
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From interviews what does Archer show?
How black students are demonised as loud, challenging, excessively sexual & have unaspirational home cultures
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Outline Fullers study
Group of black girls in year 11 of London comprehensive school is an example of responding to teacher racism
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Why were the girls untypical?
As they were high achievers in a school where most black girls were placed in low streams however, instead of accepting negative stereotypes of themselves, girls channeled their anger about being labelled into pursuit of educational success
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How did the girls conform?
As far as schoolwork itself was concerned as they worked conscientiously but showed a deliberate lack of concern about school routines
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What did Mirza study?
Ambitious black girls who faced teacher racism & found that racist teachers discouraged black pupils from being ambitious through advice given to them about careers
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What are the three main types of teacher racism?
The colour blind (teacher believe all pupils are equal but in practice allow racism to go unchallenged), The liberal chauvinists (teachers who believe black pupils are culturally deprived) & Overt racists ( teachers who believe blacks are inferior)
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What does Sewell note?
Black boys responses to school, including racist stereotyping by teachers can affect their achievement
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What are the four responses identified by Sewell?
The rebels, The conformists, The retreatists & The innovators
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What does Sewell show?
Only a small minority fit the stereotype of black macho lad however, teachers tend to see all black boys in this way which contributes to underachievement of many black boys whatever their attitude to school
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Rather than blaming the child home background, labelling theory shows what?
How teachers' stereotypes can be a cause of failure but there is a danger of seeing these stereotypes as the product of individual teachers' prejudices rather tan of racism in way of education system operates
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What do Gillborn & Youdell argue?
That the policy of publishing exam league tables creates an 'A-to-C' economy and leads to large numbers of black w/c pupils being places in lower streams
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What is there a danger of?
Once labelled, pupils automatically fall victim to self-fulfil their prophecy & fail however, as Mirza shows although pupils may devise strategies to try & avoid teacher racism which can limit opportunities
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What do Troyna & Williams argue?
That to explain ethnic differences in achievement, we need to go beyond simply examining individual teacher racism. Schools & colleges routinely & unconsciously discriminate against ethnic minorities
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What is critical race theory?
Sees racism as an ingrained feature of society which means it not just involves the intentional actions of individuals but institutional racism
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For critical race theorists such as Roithmayr what is institutional racism?
A locked-in equality which becomes self-perpetuating and so the educational system as institutionally racist
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What is the ethnocentric curriculum?
A curriculum that reflects the culture of one ethnic group - usually the dominant culture. Many sociologists see this is a prime example of institutional racism as it builds a racial bias into the everyday workings of schools.
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What do Troyna & Williams note?
The inadequate provision for teachings Asian languages as compared with European
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What does Ball note?
That in history the criticises the National Curriculum for ignoring ethnic diversity & promoting an attitude of Little Englandism
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Outline the new 'IQism'
Access to opportunities such as Gifted & Talented programmes depend heavily on teachers expectations of pupils ability & Gillborn & Youdell found teachers had racialised expectations that black pupils would pose more discipline problems
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Outline statistics on gender differences in achievement
Key stage 1-3 girls do consistently better than boys especially in English where gender gap steadily widens ith age. At GCSE gender gap stands at around 10% points & AS & A level girls are more likely to sit, pass and get higher grades than boys
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Outline statistics on vocational courses in gender differences
In VC preparing students for a career results how similar pattern as GSE as larger proportion of girls achieve distinctions in every subject, including those such as engineering & construction where girls are a small majority of the students
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Outline the impact of feminism as an external factor in gender differences
Since 1960s, feminist movement has challenged the traditional stereotype of a women role as solely that of a mother & housewife in a patriarchal nuclear family & inferior to men outside the home, in work, education & law
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Outline McRobbie's study of girls magazines
Magazines in the 1970s emphasised the importance of getting married & not being left on the shelf whereas nowadays they contain images of assertive, independent women
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Outline changes in the family as an external factor in gender differences
Major changes since 1970s e.g. an increase in divorce rate may suggest to girls that its unwise to rely on a husband to be their provider & this may encourage girls to look to themselves & their qualifications to make a living
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What about increase in number of female headed lone families?
May mean more women need to take on a breadwinner role which creates a new adult role model for girls
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Outline changes in womens employment as an external factor in gender differences
The 1970 Equal Pay Act makes it illegal to pay women less than men for work of equal value 7 1975 Sex Discrimination Act outlaws discrimination work. Since 1975, pay gap between men & women have halved from 30% -15%
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Outline girls changing ambition as an external factor in gender differences
View that changes in family & employment are producing changes in girls' ambitions is supported by Sharpe's interviews with girls in 1970s & 1990s which shows major shift in ways girls see their future
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Outline the views of girls in 1974
Low aspirations, believed educational success was unfeminine 7 appearing t be ambitious would be considered unattractive & priorities - love, marriage, husband, children, job, career
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Outline the views of girls in 1990
Different order of priorities as job and career before love and a family - girls were more likely to see their future as an independent woman
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Outline equal opportunity policies as an internal factor in gender differences
Feminist ideas have had a major impact on education system as policymakers are now much more aware of gender issues & teachers are more sensitive to need to avoid stereotypes
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Such as Girls into Science & Technology and Women into science & Engineering encourage girls to pursue careers in these non-traditional areas
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Outline Boalers view
Sees impact of equal opportunities polices as a key reason for the changes in girls' achievement & many of the barriers have been removed
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Outline GCSE + Coursework as an internal factor in gender differences
Some sociologists ague that changes in ways pupils are assessed have favoured girls & disadvantaged boys e.g. Gorard found gender gap in achievement was fairly constant from 1975-1989 when increased sharply - year GCSE was introduced with coursework
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How to Mitsos & Browne argue?
That girls are more successful in coursework as they are more conscientious & better organised than boys
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However, what does Elwood argue?
That although coursework has some influence, its unlikely to be the only cause of the gender gap
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What did French & French analyse?
Classroom interaction & found that boys received more attention due to the attracting more reprimands
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What did Francis find?
That while boys get more attention, they were disciplined more harshly & felt picked on by teachers
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What did Swann find in regards to teacher attention and gender differences?
Diferences in communication styles e.g. working in groups girls' speech involves turn talking & not the hostile interruptions that often characterise boys' speech. May explain why teachers respond more positively to girls who see as cooperative
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Outline liberal feminist view of girls achievement
Celebrate the progress made so far in improving achievement & believe that further progress can be made by continuing development of equal opportunities policies etc.
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Outline radical feminist view of girls achievement
Take a more critical view & while they recognise that girls are achieving more, they emphasise that the system remains patriarchal & conveys the message that its still a mans world
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Outline the symbolic capital view of identity, class & girls achievement
Are social class differences in girls' achievement eg. in 2013 one 40.6% of girls from poorer families achieved 5+ GCSE's whereas ver 2/3 of those not on free meals did.
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Outline Archer et als view on this data
The conflict between w/c feminine identities of the girls & values of the school. In her study of w/c girls, Archer uses the concept of symbolic capital & found by performing w/c identities, girls gained symbolic capital from peers but conflict with
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Why do girls spend considerable time, effort & money constructing hyper-heterosexual feminine identities?
Brings status from female peer groups but brings conflict with school for example, punished for having the wrong appearance
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Outline the link between boyfriends & symbolic capital
Having one brings SC but gets in the way of schoolwork & lowers girls' aspirations e.g. losign itnerest in going to uni, in studying masculine subjects and instead aspiring to settle down, have children & work local in w/c feminism jobs e.g. childca
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Outline how some e/c girls can be successful
Even though generally w/c girls are likely to underachieve some do succeed & go on to higher education
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What does Evans suggest?
In her study of 21 w/c sixth form girls in a comprehensive school girls wanted to go to university to increase their earning power but this was for their families not themselves
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Outline boys and achievement through boys + literacy
According to DCSF gender gap is mainly result of boys poor literacy & language skills. One reason = parents spend less time reading to their sons or boys see reading as a feminine activity as their mothers did the most reading
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What about boys leisure pursits?
Such as football do little t help develop their language whereas girls tend to have bedroom culture on staying in & talking to friends
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What has the government done about boys poor language & literacy skills affect boys performance?
Introduced a range of policies such as The Raising Boys Achievement project which involves a range of teaching strategies
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Outline boys and achievement through globalisation & decline of traditional mens jobs
Since 1980s, been significant decline in heavy industries such as iron, steel, shipbuilding, mining etc. Partly been result of globalisation of economy which led to much of manufacturing industry relocating to developing countries
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Outline boys and achievement through shortage of male primary teachers
Large numbers of boys are being brought up in 1.5. million female-headed parent families in UK & only 14% of primary school teachers are male so Yougov argues 39% of 8-11 year old boys have no lessons with a male teacher
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However, what does research suggest?
That the absence of male teachers may not be a major factor in boys achievement e.g. Francs found that 2/3 of 7-8 yr olds believed the gender of their teacher doesn't matter
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Outline Read's study
The type of language teachers use to express criticism or disapproval & found most teachers favoured a masculine disciplinarian discourse to control pupils which disproves the claim that the culture of primary schools have become feminised
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Outline the moral panic of boys
Critics of feminism argue that policies to promote girls' education are no longer needed & these critics speak of girl power of girls today 'having it all' & women taking mens jobs
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Outline gender & subject choice through national curriculum options
Still traditional pattern of boys' & girls' subjects - boys tend to opt for subjects such as maths & physics whereas girls are more likely to choose modern languages. National curriculum gives pupils little freedom to choose
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Outline gender & subject choice through AS + A levels
Big gender differences in entries for A-level subjects, wth boys opting for maths & physicals & girls choosing subjects such as sociology 7 e ngligh. But these patterns aren't new e.g. A-level female physics students been around 20% over 20 yrs
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Outline gender & subject choice through gender domains
Browne & Ross argue that children's beliefs about gender domains are shaped by their early experiences & expectations of adults e.g. fixing a car is seen as falling within male domain. Children are more confident in task of own gender domain
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Outline gender & subject choice through single-sex schooling
Pupils who attend single-sex schools tend to hold less stereotypical subject iages & make less traditional subject choices e.g. from analysng 13,00 individuals Leonard foun compar to pupils in mixed schools girls were more likely to take maths at a-l
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Outline pupils' sexual & gender identities through double standards
In the case of gender identity, Leeds identifies a double standard of sexual morality in which boys boast about their own sexual exploits but call a girl **** if she doesn't have a steady boyfriend but a lad if a boy does it
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Outline pupils' sexual & gender identities through verbal abuse
What Connell calls a rich vocabulary of abuse if one of the ways in which dominant gender & sexual identities are reinforced. e.g. boys use name-calling o put girls down if they behave in a certain way
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What does Paechter see name-calling as?
Helping to shape gender inequality & maintain male power & the use of negative labels such as gay, queer & lizzie n ays pupils police each others sexual identities
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Outline pupils' sexual & gender identities through peer groups
Male peer groups use verbal abuse to reinforce their definitions of masculinity e.g. Epstein et al show boys in anti-school subcultures often accuse boys who want to do well at school as being gay
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What did Mac an Ghaill's study of Parnell school find?
The w/c macho lads were dismissive of w/c boys who worked hard & aspired to m/c career, referring to them as the ******** achievers
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What does Durkheim argue society needs?
A sense of solidarity & that without it social life & cooperation would be impossible as everyone would pursue their own selfish desires.
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How does the education system help to create solidarity?
By transmitting society's culture from one generation to the next. Schools act as a society in the minature, preapring s for life in wider socieety e.g. both in school & at work we must cooperate with people who neither family/friends
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Outline modern industrial economies
Have complex division of labour, where production of even a single item usually involves the cooperation of many specialists which promotes social solidarity
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What does Durkheim argue education does?
Teaches the specialist knowledge & skills for the role in social division of labour
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What does Parsons see the school as?
The focal socialising agency in modern society, acting as a bridge between the family & wider society & this bridge is needed as family and societ operate on different principles, so children need to learn a new way of living to cope with wider world
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Within the family, what is the child judged by?
Particularistic standards that are fixed at birth for example, a son and daughter may be given different rights or duties because of differences in age & sex. Whereas, school and wider society judge us all by the ame universalistic & impersona standa
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What else do functionalists argue schools can perform?
The function of selecting & allocating pupils to their future work roles & by assessing individuals' abilities, schools help to match them to the job they are best suited to
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What do Davis & Moore see education as?
A device for selection & role allocation & focus on the relationship between education & social inequality. They argue that inequality is necessary to ensure the most important roles in society are filled by most talented
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What is a criticism of the functionalist perspective of the education system?
It doesn't teach specialise skills adequately like Durkheim claims e.g. the Wolf review of vocational education 2011 claims that high quality apprenticships are rare & up to a third of 16-19 year olds are on courses that dont lead to higher education
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What is there plenty of evidence of?
Equal opportunity in education doesn't exist e.g. achievement is greatly influenced by class background rather than ability
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What do the New Right argue about education?
That the state should not provide services such as education, health & welfare. Neolibera ideas have influenced all governements since 1979 & neoliberalism thinkers believe the government should encourage competition, privatise state-run businesses
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What is a central principle of New Right thinking?
The belief that the state cannot meet peoples needs 7 that people are best left to meet their own needs through the free-market, for this reason the New Right favour marketisation of education
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What do Chubb & Moe argue?
The state-run eduction in the US has failed as it hasn't created equal opportunity & has failed the needs of disadvantaged groups, its inefficient as it fails to produce pupils with the skills
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What do Chubb & Moe base their arguments on?
A comparison of their achievements of 60,000 pupils from low-income families in 1,015 state & private high schools together with findings of parent surveys & case studies of failing schools
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What does their evidence show?
That pupils from low-income families consistently do around 5% better in private than state schools. Based on these findings, Chubb & Moe call for introduction of market system in state education which would put control in hands of consumers
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What do Gewirtz & Ball argue?
That competition between schools benefits the m/c who can use their cultural & economic capital to gain access to more desirable schools
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What do critics argue about New Right perspective on education?
That the real cause of low educational standards isn't state control but social inequality & inadequate funding of state schools
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What do Marxists see education based on?
Class division & capitalist exploitation. Marx described capitalism as a two-class system: the capitlaist class who are the employers or own the means of production & working class who are forced to sell their labour power to capitalists
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What did Marx believe would ultimately happen?
The w/c would unite to overthrow the capitalist system & create a classless society
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Outline Althusser's view of the education system
Its an important ideological state apparatus & argues that it performs two functions: reproducing class inequality by transmitting it from one generation to another & legitimating by producing ideologies that disguise its true cause
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What do Bowles & Gintis argue?
That capitalism requires a workforce with the kind of attitudes, behaviour 7 personality tye suited to their role as alienated & exploited workers willing to accept hard working, low pay & orders from above
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What do they argue about close parallels?
There is between schooling & work in capitalist society as they are both hierarchies with head teachers or bosses at the top making decisions & giving orders & pupils/workers obeying. Bowles et al refer to this as correspondence principle
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What do Bowles & Gintis see education as?
A fairly straightforward process of indoctrination into the myth of meritocracy, Willis' study showed that w/c pupil can resists such attempt to indoctrinate them
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Using qualitative methods e.g. participant observation what did Willis study?
The counter-culture of a group of 12 w/c boys as they make the transition from schol to work. The lads find school boring & meaningless & push the rules & values
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What did Willis note?
The similarity between the lads anti-school counter culture & the shop floor culture of male manual workers
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How are Marxist approaches useful?
In exposing the myth of meritocracy & show the role that education plays as an ideological state apparatus, serving the interests of capitalism by reproducing & legitimating class inequality
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How do postmodernists criticise Bowles & Gintis' correspondence principle?
As todays post-Fordist economy requires schools to produce a different kind of labour force than the one described by Marxists
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How do critical modernists such as Torres et al criticise Marxists?
For taking a class first approach that sees class s the key inequality & ignores all other kinds. Torres et al argue society is more diverse & so sociologists must explain how education reproduces/legitimates all forms of inequality
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Outline educational policy in Britain before 1988
There were no state schools & education was only available to the minority of population. Industrialisation increased need for educated workforce & from late 19th century state began to be more involved in education
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What occurred as a reflection of growing importance?
Made schooling compulsory from 5-13 in 1880 however, type of education children received depended on their class background
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What occurred from 1944?
Education began to be influenced by idea of meritocracy & Education Act brought in the tripartite system, so called as children were to be selected & located to one of three types of secondary schools from their 11+ exams
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Outline the three types of secondary schools
Grammar schools - offered academic curriculum & access to non-manual jobs, Secondary modern schools offered non-academic practical curriculum & access to manual work and Technical schools
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Outline the comprehensive school system
Introduced in many areas from 1965 & aimed to overcome class divide of tripartite system. 11+ exams were abolished along with grammar & secondary moderns & replaced with comprehensive schools that all pupils within area would attend
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What do functionalists see the role of education as?
Fulfilling essential functions such as social integration & meritocratic selection for future work roles whereas Marxists see education as serving the interests of capitalism by reproducing & legitimating class inequality
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What does marketisation refer to?
The process of introducing market forces of consumer choice & competition between suppliers into areas run by the state such as education
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What has marketisation created?
An education market by: reducing direct state control over education & increasing competition between schools & parental choice
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What has marketisation become?
A central theme of government education policy since 1988 Education Reform Act introduced by Conservative government - Thatcher
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From 2010 what occurred?
The Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government created academies & free schools
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Outline politices to promote marketisation
Publication of exam league tables & ofsted inspection reports that give parents information to choose the right school, business sponsorship of schools &open enrolment allowing successful schools to recruit more pupils
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What does David describe marketised education as?
A parentocracy & supporters of marketisation argue that in an education market, power shifts away from the producers to the consumers & claims that this encourages diversity among schools & gives parents more choice
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Outline league tables
The policy of publishing each schools exam results in a league table ensures that schools that achieve good results are more in demand as parents will be attracted to those with a good league table ranking
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What does Barlett note?
That publishing league tables encourages cream skimming where good schools can be selective, choose their own customers & recruit high achievers
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Outline the funding formula
Schools are allocated funds by a formula based on how many pupils they attract & as a result popular schools get more funds & so can afford better-qualified teachers & popularity allows the to be more selective & attract more able m/c applicants
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How do marketisation policies benefit the m/c?
They increase parental choice who's economic & cultural capital put them in a better position to choose good schools for their children
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What does Gerwirtz's study of 14 London secondary schools show?
She found differences in parents economic &cultural capital lead to class differences in how far they can exercise choice of secondary schools
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Outline the three types of parents Gerwirtz found
Privledged-skilled chooser - mainly professional m/c, Disconnect-local choosers - were w/c parents whose choices were restricted, Semi-skilled choosers -mainly w/c but were ambitious for children but lacked cultural capital
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What does Ball believe?
That marketisation gives the appearance of parentocracy but this is a myth as it just appears that all parents have same freedom to choose schools for their children
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What have the New Labour government of 1997-2010 introduced?
Several policies aimed at reducing inequality such as the Aim Higher programme to raise the aspirations of groups who are under-represented in higher education & Introduced of National Literacy Strategy
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Outline Coalition government policies from 2010
The Conservative-Liberal Democrat Coalition government elected in 2010 acclerates the move away from an education system based on comprehnsive schools run by local authorities & its policie have bee strongly influenced by neoliberal & New Right ideas
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From 2010 what were all schools encouraged to do?
Leave local authority control & become academies, funding was taken from local authority budgets & given directly to academies who were given control over their curriculum. By 2012, ver 1/2 of all secondary were academies
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How are free schools set up?
Are set up & ran by parents, tachers, faith organisations or businesses rather than local authority & give parents & teachers opportunity to create a new school
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However, what does Allen argue?
That research from Sweden where 20% of schools are free schools shows they only benefit children from highly educated families
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What does Ball argue?
That promoting academies & free schools has led to both increased fragmentation &increase of centralisation of control over education provision in England
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What does the privatisation of education involve?
The transfer of public assets such as schools to private companies & in recent years there has been a trend towards privatisation o aspects of education where it becomes source of profit for capitalists
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Outline how it becomes privatised
Large-scale school building projects often involve public-private partnerships, in which private sector companies provide capital to design, build, finance & operate educational services & typically such contracts last 25yrs+
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What does Ball say about privatisation of education and companies?
That companies involved in such work can expect to make up to 10X as much profit than other contracts
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Outline privatisation & globalisation of education policy
Many private companies in education services industry are foreign-owned e.g. exam board Edexcel is owned by US educational publishing & testing giant Pearson. According to ball some Pearson GCSE exam answers are now marked in Sydney & Iowa
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How is the private sector affecting education indirectly?
Through vending machines on school premises & the development of brand loyalty through displays of logos & sponsorships
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Outline Molnars view
Schools are targeted by private companies as by nature they carry enormous goodwill & confer legitimacy
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However, what did Ball find?
That in a Cadbury's sports equipment promotion he found to qualify for a set of volleyball posts pupils would have to eat 5,440 chocolate bars
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Outline policies on gender
Since 1970s policies such as GIST have been introduced to try & reduce greater differences in subject choice
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Outline policies on ethnicity
Assimilation policies in 1960s/70s focused on need for pupils from ethnic minorities to move into mainstream British culture as a way of raising their achievement especially if English wasn't their first language
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Other cards in this set
How might social class background have a big influence on a childs chance of success?
Children from m/c families on average perform better than w/c children & class gap in achievement grows wider as children get older
Outline some statistics on private schools
What did Sutton Trust find?
What did a Nationwide study by Centre for Longitudinal Studies find in regards to class differences in children development appearing very early in life?