Education

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Culture
Things that are learnt and shared by a society or group of people and transmitted from generation to generation, e.g. shared norms, values, knowledge, beliefs and skills, etc.
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Values
General principles or goals
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Norms
Social rules, expectations or standards that govern the behaviour in particular situation; could be formal (laws/rules) or informal (e.g. rules of respect and politeness)
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Socialisation
The process by which an individual learns or internalises the culture of society. Primary: occurs largely within the family and at an early stage, involves learning basic skills, values and language. Secondary; later in life and in wider society
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The structural view
Sees us as entirely shaped by the structure of society, we are like puppets on a string, manipulated by society. We behave according to society's norms+expectations, macro(large scale) approach.
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The social action view
Sees us as having free will and choice, power of individuals to create society through their actions, micro approach,face-to-face interaction.
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External factors
factors outside the education system, e.g. influence of home and family background and wider society, etc
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Cultural factors
These include class differences in norms and values acquired through socialisation, attitudes to education, speech codes, etc.
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Class differences in achievement(external) Material factors
These are the physical necessities of life, e.g. adequate housing, diet and income.
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Cultural deprivation
The theory that many WC are inadequately socialised and thus, lack the 'right' culture needed for educational success
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Language
Bernstein- The WC makes use of restricted speech code; limited vocabulary, short and often unfinished grammatically simple sentences, predictable, etc. Middle class; elaborated code; wider vocabs, longer grammatically more complex sentences.
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How elaborated speech code benefits the MC children in education?
Used by teachers, textbooks, exams and university interviews etc. As MC children are socialised into the elaborated code= fluent users. (+) effective tool for analysing and reasoning skills.
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Parents' education
Feinstein- parents' own education= most important factor affecting children's achievement. Study by Douglas, WC parents placed less value on education, thus; less ambitious, gave less encouragement, less interests in their children's education.
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Parenting style
Educated parents emphasise consistent discipline, high expecatations, active learning and exploration. Whilst, less educated=inconsistent, harsh discipline, "doing as you're told", means children have poorer motivation+problems interacting w teachers
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Parents' educational behaviours
Educated parents=more aware of what helps children progress e.g. form good relationships w teachers and see the value of educational visits
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Use of income
Better educated parents spend their income to promote children's development and educational success, e.g. educational toys and books (Bernstein+Young), encourages reasoning skills=stimulate intellectual development
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Subculture
Subculture- A group whose attitudes and values differ from those of the mainstream culture.
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WC subculture
Sugarman-Immediate gratification: wanting rewards now rather than being willing to make sacrifices
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Fatalism
A belief that 'whatever will be will be', WC children don't believe they can improve their position through their own individual efforts
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Collectivism
Valuing being part of a group more than succeeding as an individual
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Present-time orientation
Seeing the present as more important than the future and so not having long term goals
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Compensatory education
Government education policies, aim to tackle the problem of cultural deprivation by providing extra resources to schools and communities, e.g. Operation head start (US), Sure start, Sesame street
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Criticisms of cultural deprivation theory
Keddie; 'myth', sees this theory as victim blaming, argues that a child cannot be deprived of its own culture+they are simply socialised differently. WC children fail as they are put at a disadvantage by an education system , dominated by MC
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Material deprivation (poverty)
Lack of basic necessities such as adequate diet, housing, clothing/or the money to buy these things
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Poverty=closely linked to educational underachievement
E.G. Exclusion and truancy more likely from poorer families/Nearly 90% of failing schools=located in deprived areas/DfE=1/3 of FSM pupils gain 5/moreGCSEA*-C grades
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Poor housing (direct impact)
Overcrowding=lack of space to do hw=educational activities/disturded sleep due to sharing rooms w siblings,etc.Development of children;no play space/temporary accomodation=disrupted education
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(indirect impact)
Crowded=greater risk of accidents/cold+damp condition causes illness, more absences from school/temporary accommodation=psychological distress
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Poor diet and health
Howard-young pupils from poorer homes=lower intakes of enery, vitamins, poor nurtirtions=illness/lack of energy=difficult to concentrate/absences/emotional+behaviour problems
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Wilkinson (1996) on poor diet and health
Lower the social class=the higher the rate of hyperactivity, anxiety and conduct disorders=negative effect on the child's education
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Blanden and Machin on poor diet and health
Children from low income families are more likely to engage in 'externalising' behaviour (e.g. fighting/temper tantrums), disrupt their schooling
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Fianancial support and costs of education
Poorer families have to do w/o equipment and miss out on experiences that would enhnace their educational achievement/Tanner; cost of item e.g.transport,uniforms,books,etc place heavy burden/hand-me-down(cheaper) resources;may lead to being isolated
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(+)
/stigmatised or bullied by peers. Inability to afford private schooling/tuition/lack of funds=children from lowincome families=work which affects their education
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Fear of debt
Callender+Jackson=WC students=debt averse, saw the costs than benefits in going to uni(e.g. tuition fees/accommodation price)=influenced their decisions. When at uni=less financial support from families/ likely to apply to close/local uni/drop out
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Cultural capital theory (Bourdieu)
Combines both material+cultural aspects=interrelated
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What is capital and 3 types of captial
Captial=wealth (economic capital)/educational capital/cultural capital
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Cultural capital
Knowledge, attitudes, values,language,abilities of the MC=advantage in school, where abilities+interests=valued thus rewarded. Educational system=favours+transmit the dominant MC culture
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Economic+educational capital
Wealthier parents can convert their economic capital into educational capital by sending their child to private schools and paying for extra tuition,gives MC children advantages=reproduces to generations
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Class differences in acheivement(internal factors)
Factors within schools and the education system (such as interaction between teacher and pupil) and inequalities between schools/labelling/the self-fulfilling prophecy/streaming/pupil subculture/class identities+the school
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Labelling
Meanings and definition we attach to someone/group of people to make snese of them, e.g. MC pupils are labelled "bright"/"motivated"
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Becker on labelling
Teachers lable MC children as 'ideal pupils' and prefer to teach them rather than WC children.
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Jorgenson on labelling
Study of two English primary school- Largely WC school=ideal pupils defined as quiet/passive/obedient, defined in terms of behaviour/not ability.Largely MC=peronality+academic ability
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Dunne and Gazeley=
Teachers' labelling and assumptions= school produce/normalise WC underachievement/less concerned/felt little or nothing could be done about it. Contrast, believed underachievement of MC pupils=overcome
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(+)
Lead to class differences/entering WC
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

General principles or goals

Back

Values

Card 3

Front

Social rules, expectations or standards that govern the behaviour in particular situation; could be formal (laws/rules) or informal (e.g. rules of respect and politeness)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The process by which an individual learns or internalises the culture of society. Primary: occurs largely within the family and at an early stage, involves learning basic skills, values and language. Secondary; later in life and in wider society

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Sees us as entirely shaped by the structure of society, we are like puppets on a string, manipulated by society. We behave according to society's norms+expectations, macro(large scale) approach.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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