Education 2 marker Revision

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Explain what is meant by the term ‘elaborated speech code’
BERSTEIN (marxist) - middle class speak more elaborately, with a wider vocabulary.
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Explain what is meant by the term 'educational triage’
This is where pupils are divided up by teachers; pupils who are hopeless, those who are C/D borderline are supported, and also those who will do well anyway.
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Explain what is meant by 'Cultural Capital’
BOUREIU (marxist) - having the skills, knowledge, norms and values which can be used to get ahead in education - this is what the middle class are socialised to have
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Explain what is meant by 'restricted speech code’
BERNSTEIN - the working classes are more likely to have a restricted code, which is limited in vocabulary and punctuation and lacks correct grammar.
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Explain what is meant by 'Compensatory education’
A strategy that is available to combat cultural deprivation and inadequate socialisation, they provide extra resources to help those in need, like programmes like Sure Start.
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Explain what is meant by 'Subculture’
This is where pupils can form their own groups with values that tend to be different from the larger culture.
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What is the difference between the views of a 'Cultural Capital Theorist' and a 'Cultural Deprivation Theorist'
cultural capital- does not see working class culture as inferior, or lacking in any way, it just sees it as different to middle class culture. Cultural Deprivation- working class has inferior norms, values, skills.
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Explain what is meant by the term 'ethnic group’
This is a group of people that associate themselves with a different group identified by nationality, religion, culture and language.
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Explain what is meant by the term 'secondary socialisation’
Within education, this refers to the way the way students are socialised into societies norms and attitudes, this is different from primary socialisation which is from the family.
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Explain what is meant by the term 'hidden curriculum’
This is a Marxist idea, where students are taught their place in society - to be exploited workers
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Explain what is meant by the term 'comprehensive education’
This is a form of education that is widely available in theory to everyone, and teaches everyone the same curriculum, so everyone has an equal chance.
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Explain what is meant by the term 'social solidarity’
This is an idea of Durkheim, he highlighted that education creates social solidarity by communicating societies culture to the younger generation.
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Explain what is meant by 'present time orientation’
SUGARMAN - working class people have attitudes which are orientated on the present, so only planning for the short term, not the long term.
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Explain what is meant by 'ethnocentric curriculum’
the curriculum is based on one culture - . For example, learning about British culture, British history, over e.g. Asian or Black culture.
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Explain what is meant by Material Deprivation?
This is where someone lacks the resources in their life which could set them back, like adequate housing or income.
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Explain what is meant by the term 'Objectivity’
This refers to the unbiased way something can be perceived. For example using an Maths test to test Maths ability.
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Explain what is meant by the term 'Labelling'
This is where teachers put a label on students and then acts according to the label set. For example, GILLBORN found teachers labelled Black students as challenging and so teachers would act on this given label by disciplining them quicker & harsher.
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Explain what is meant by the term 'Interview Schedule’
This is normally used in a structured interview and is the way in which it should be conducted, .e.g what specific questions are to be asked in an order.
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Explain what is meant by 'Correspondence principal’
BOWLES & GINTIS- school is used to mirror to the work place in a capitalist society, that is that it works in the same way; hierarchy, and teaching students to be obedient workers.
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Explain what is meant by the 'Operationalisation’ of sociological concepts
This is the process of defining concepts and making them measurable. For example, if you want to look at the effects of streaming, you can measure this by putting children of equal ability into different streams and seeing what happens.
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Explain what is meant by the term 'Meritocracy’
PARSONS- This is the idea that everyone has an equal chance to thrive and earn rewards based on their hard work.
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Explain what is meant by the term 'Social Solidarity’
DURKHEIM- school makes us feel that we are part of something bigger, this is through the learning of subjects such as History and English, giving us a shared sense of identify and a social solidarity.
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Explain what is meant by the 'Hawthorne effect’
This is the theory that people may change or adapt behaviour when being watched, maybe to please the person or to show a socially acceptable behaviour.
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Explain what is meant by the term 'immediate gratification’
This is the idea that people may only work for the immediate benefits instead of the long terms benefits. So they prefer immediate rewards rather than planning.
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Explain what is meant by 'Validity’ in sociological research
This is whether something actually measures something. So if you are trying to measure effects of streaming but have research which collects info about racism in school, its not valid as its not what you are supposed to be measuring.
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Explain what is meant by the term 'Cultural Deprivation’
This is how someone lacks values, skills or knowledge in their life as they were deprived the ways in which to gain this.
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What is meant by the term 'Primary data’
This is data that is collected by oneself for ones own purposes, as opposed to something collected by someone else that you can use.
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What is an 'independent variable’
This is the thing that sociologists can manipulate to measure the dependant variable.
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What is a sampling frame?
This is a list of people forming a population from which a sample can be taken. For example, children who attend private schools is the sampling frame, and a sample from a few select schools would be the sample collected from the sampling frame.
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What is a 'hypothesis’?
A hypothesis is a testable statement about the variables the sociologists are about to research.
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Explain what is meant by a rapport?
The relationship which is formed from a researcher to the participants which means the participants feel more comfortable answering the researchers questions or taking part in the task.
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What is a focus group?
This is a group which is used for a discussion before the initial study is conducted to provide feedback on what is about to be researched.
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What is a longitudinal study?
This is a study which measures the same things over a longer period of time, it usually measures the trends over a period of time and comparing it to the beginning to spot a pattern.
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How might a sample be stratified?
It could be done my making sure that the target population when broken down into categories like age, gender, ethnicity etc are equally represented in the sample.
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Card 2

Front

Explain what is meant by the term 'educational triage’

Back

This is where pupils are divided up by teachers; pupils who are hopeless, those who are C/D borderline are supported, and also those who will do well anyway.

Card 3

Front

Explain what is meant by 'Cultural Capital’

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explain what is meant by 'restricted speech code’

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Explain what is meant by 'Compensatory education’

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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