Edexcel Clinical Psychology A2

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  • Created by: Elena
  • Created on: 05-06-14 21:05
What is clinical psychology?
Seeks to find what makes a behaviour abnormal, and then to diagnose what the problem is so that it can be treated
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What is the statistical definition of abnormality?
Uses curve of normal distribution and assumes that any normal characteristic occurs in 95% of the population so any abnormal characteristics occur in 5% of the population
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What is the social norm definition of abnormality?
Based on what society sees as desirable behaviour. Anyone who deviates from such behaviour is classed as abnormal
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Define schizophrenia
A psychotic disorder that affects about 1% of the population. It can cause disturbances in a person's thoughts, emotions and behaviours that can lead to the person withdrawing from social life.
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Define reliability
The consistency of a method, measurable by the ability to replicate the study and also by the consistency found
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Define validity
Measuring what you claim to measure, and having findings about real-life situations and behaviours.
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What is primary data?
Original data that has been collected by those who witnessed an event first-hand or who collected data themselves for a specific purpose. May present original thinking or new information.
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What is secondary data?
Second-hand analysis of pre-existing (primary) data. May be analysed in a different way or used to answer a different question from that addressed in the original research - usually interprets, analyses, evaluates or comments on a primary source
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What are twin studies?
Researchers focus on study of MZ twins (share 100% of genes) - to investigate influence of genes & in particular to see whether there is a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia.
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What are animal studies?
Using animals in experiments - ethological methods (studied in natural environment) or laboratory studies (studied in artificial environment)
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What are the features of schizophrenia?
It affects 1% of the population and is equally common among men and women.
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What are the positive symptoms of schizophrenia? and what does positive symptoms mean?
Positive means excesses in behaviour = hallucinations, delusions, thought insertion, thought withdrawal. thought broadcasting
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What are the features of anorexia nervosa?
90% of cases are in females between 13 years and 18 years. Rarely begins before puberty. It occurs in o.5-1% of females in adolescence and early adulthood.
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What are the symptoms of anorexia nervosa?
Refusal to eat & maintain minimum average expected body weight. Fear of gaining weight or becoming fat. Distorted perception of body weight & shape. Amenorrhea. Weight less that 85% of expected
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What are the explanations for anorexia nervosa?
Learning approach - rewards from the environment or gets attention from not eating (parents). Biological approach - malfunction of the hypothalamus.
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What are the 2 explanations for schizophrenia?
Biological explanation - dopamine hypothesis and a genetic link. Cognitive explanation -
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What are the treatments for schizophrenia?
Biological treatment - drug therapy. Cognitive therapy - Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
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What are the treatments for anorerxia nervosa?
Cognitive approach - Rational Emotive Therapy. Psychodynamic approach - free association
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What is the social approach treatment?
Care in the community
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What is the biological approach treatment?
Drug therapy or Electro-convulsive therapy
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What is the learning approach treatment?
Systematic desensitisation or token economy
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What is the psychodynamic approach treatment?
Free association
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What is the cognitive approach treatment?
Rational Emotive Therapy
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What is care in the community?
Aim of rehabilitating the patient and ensuring they can function as normally as possible in society - sheltered accommodation, 24-hour care, includes chance to work in co-operative businesses.
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What is CBT?
Combines cognitive and behavioural approaches - aims to allow the patient to use information from the world to make adaptive rather than maladaptive decisions
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What is RET?
Aims to change patterns of irrational thinking and replace them with more rational thinking patterns
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What is drug therapy?
Help sedate person and also reduce intensity and frequency of symptoms.
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What is free association?
Enables patient to cope better with internal conflicts that are causing disturbances and by uncovering unconscious conflicts, patient can work through them at a more consious level
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What is ECT?
Electro-convulsive therapy - biological approach - electrodes are attached to head and and electrical current is passed through the head - last case scenario -
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What is systematic desensitisation?
Learning approach - Based on idea assumption that psychological disorders are behaviours that are learned from the environment by classical and operant conditioning and social learning
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What main study looks at the reliability of the DSM?
On being sane in insane places (Rosenhan, 1973)
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What main study looks at schizophrenia?
Gender differences in the course of schizophrenia (Goldstein, 1988)
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What main study looks at anorexia nervosa?
Increased prevalence of bulimia nervosa among Asian schoolgirls (Mumford and Whitehouse, 1988)
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What is the key issue?
Understanding schizophrenia
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What was the evidence in practice? Who was the audience and what outcomes were intended?
Preparing a leaflet -
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What is the DSM?
The Diagnostic Statistic Manual - American system used to diagnose and classify mental disorders.
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What is anorexia nervosa?
'Nervous loss of apetit' but no loss of apetit in many cases
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What are the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and what does negative symptoms mean?
Negative symptoms - behaviour that is missing = poverty of speech, social withdrawal, the flattening effect
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What are the five different types of schizophrenia?
Catatonic, paranoid, disorganised, residual and undifferentiated.
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Card 2

Front

What is the statistical definition of abnormality?

Back

Uses curve of normal distribution and assumes that any normal characteristic occurs in 95% of the population so any abnormal characteristics occur in 5% of the population

Card 3

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What is the social norm definition of abnormality?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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Define schizophrenia

Back

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Card 5

Front

Define reliability

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