EDEXCEL GCSE Chemistry - Unit 2 - Topic 1

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What is the structure of atoms?
Atoms are the smallest building blocks of elements. They are made from three types of subatomic particle: protons, neutrons and electrons.
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Where are protons and neutrons located?
Protons and neutrons are held tightly together in a tiny space in the centre of the atom called the nucleus. Electrons move around in a large area surrounding the nucleus.
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What are the charges of the three subatomic particles?
Protons have a positive charge. Electrons have a negative charge. Neutrons are neutral - no charge.
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What is the relative mass and relative charge of a proton?
Relative mass = 1 Relative charge = +1
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What is the relative mass and relative charge of an electron?
Relative mass = 1 Relative charge = -1
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What is the relative mass and relative charge of a neutron?
Relative mass = 1/1836 Relative charge = 0
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When and how did Mendeleev create the periodic table?
In 1869, Mendeleev arranged the elements known at that time in a table in order of increasing atomic mass. He put the elements with similar properties underneath each other.
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Why did Mendeleev leave gaps?
Mendeleev left gaps in the table to make the elements fit the pattern.
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How did Mendeleev predict the properties of some elements?
He correctly predicted that new elements would be discovered to fill the gaps. He was able to predict the properties of these elements by looking at the properties of the elements by looking at the properties of the elements around them.
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What are isotopes?
Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons in their nucleus. They have the same number of protons and electrons, and the same chemical properties, but physical properties like mass and density.
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What is the relative atomic mass of an atom?
It is the average mass of an atom relative to the mass of an atom of carbon-12, which is assigned a mass of 12.
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How many electrons can each electron shell hold?
The first shell can hold up to 2 electrons, the second can hold 8 electrons, the third holds eight electons before the fourth shell begins to fill up. Electrons always go to the lowest energy shell they can.
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What is the electron configuration?
The arrangement of electrons in shells around the nucleus of an atom.
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What do elements in the same group have in common?
Elements in the same group of the periodic table have the same number of electrons in their outer shell.
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What does the number of shells show?
The number of shells shows which period an element is in. The number of electrons in the outer shell shows which group it is in.
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What do elements with the same number of electrons in their outer shell have in common?
Elements with the same number of electrons in their outer shell react in a similar way in chemical reactions.
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How did Mendeleev arrange the elements?
Mendeleev arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic mass. He noticed that at regular intervals, elements revealed the same properties. This is because they have a similar electron structure. This repeating nature is called periodicity.
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How is the relative atomic mass calculated?
(% of isotope 1 × mass of isotope 1) + (% of isotope 2 × mass of isotope 2) ÷ 100
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Card 2

Front

Where are protons and neutrons located?

Back

Protons and neutrons are held tightly together in a tiny space in the centre of the atom called the nucleus. Electrons move around in a large area surrounding the nucleus.

Card 3

Front

What are the charges of the three subatomic particles?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the relative mass and relative charge of a proton?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the relative mass and relative charge of an electron?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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