EDEXCEL GCSE 9-1 COMBINED SCIENCE PHYSICS PAPER 1 PART 4

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  • Created by: jordanb-h
  • Created on: 28-04-18 21:05
Gamma-rays can be emitted over a large range of frequencies, depending on the energy levels within what?
the nucleus
1 of 100
Atoms have a nucleus containing what?
protons and neutrons
2 of 100
Electrons move around what?
the nucleus of an atom
3 of 100
An atom has the same number of what?
protons and electrons, so the + and - charges balance the atom has no overall charge
4 of 100
All atoms have what?
a nucleus
5 of 100
The nucleus is always what?
positively charged as it contains protons which have a positive charge and neutrons which do not have a charge
6 of 100
The nucleus contains more than 99% of what?
the mass of the atom
7 of 100
The total number of protons in an atom's nucleus must be the same as what?
the total number of electrons in the shells
8 of 100
Electrons in atoms always orbit the nucleus and have a what?
negative charge
9 of 100
Atoms are always what?
neutral because the positive charge from the protons cancels out the negative charge from the electrons
10 of 100
The nucleus of an atom of an element may contain what?
different numbers of neutrons
11 of 100
What is a molecule?
is two or more atoms bonded together
12 of 100
Atoms of the same element can be what?
different based on the composition of their nuclei
13 of 100
Atoms are made up of what?
protons, neutrons and electrons
14 of 100
The protons and neutrons are in what?
the nucleus of the atom, and the electrons move around the outside
15 of 100
All the atoms of a particular element have what?
the same number of protons
16 of 100
The number of protons in each atom of an element is called what?
the atomic number or proton number
17 of 100
The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom is what?
the mass number or nucleon number
18 of 100
Atoms of a particular element always have the same number of protons but they can have what?
different number of neutrons
19 of 100
Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are what?
isotopes of the same element
20 of 100
In all atoms, electrons orbit the nucleus in different orbits or energy levels at different fixed distances from what?
the nucleus
21 of 100
An electron will move from a lower to a higher orbit if it absorbs what?
electromagnetic radiation
22 of 100
An electron will move from a higher to a lower orbit if it what?
emits electromagnetic radiation
23 of 100
Atoms become positively charged particles called positive ions when they what?
lose electrons
24 of 100
State how electrons can leave an atom
by absorbing electromagnetic radiation of enough energy so that they can escape the pull of the nucleus
25 of 100
State how electrons can leave an atom
by being hit by a particle such as an alpha particle or beta particles
26 of 100
State one of the three types of electromagnetic radiation that have enough energy so that an electron can escape the pull of the nucleus so that it can leave an atom
UV
27 of 100
State one of the three types of electromagnetic radiation that have enough energy so that an electron can escape the pull of the nucleus so that it can leave an atom
X-rays
28 of 100
State one of the three types of electromagnetic radiation that have enough energy so that an electron can escape the pull of the nucleus so that it can leave an atom
gamma-rays
29 of 100
Alpha, beta, gamma and neutron radiation are emitted by what?
unstable nuclei
30 of 100
What does an element having a unstable nuclei mean?
they will undergo radioactive decay and change into other elements
31 of 100
An alpha particle is a what?
helium nucleus
32 of 100
What is an alpha particle composed of?
two protons and two neutrons
33 of 100
What is a beta particle?
an electron
34 of 100
What is a positron?
is an anti-electron
35 of 100
State the relative charge of alpha
+2
36 of 100
State the relative mass of alpha
4
37 of 100
State the ionising power of alpha
heavily ionising
38 of 100
State the penetrating power of alpha
very low, only 5 cm in air
39 of 100
State whether alpha is affected by magnetic fields
yes
40 of 100
State the relative charge of beta
-1
41 of 100
State the relative mass of beta
1/1840
42 of 100
State the ionising power of beta
weakly ionising
43 of 100
State the penetrating power of beta
low, stopped by thin aluminium
44 of 100
State whether beta is affected by magnetic fields
Yes but in the opposite direction to alpha and positron
45 of 100
State the relative charge of positron
+1
46 of 100
State the relative mass of positron
1/1840
47 of 100
State the ionising power of positron
weakly ionising
48 of 100
State the penetrating power of positron
low, stopped by thin aluminium
49 of 100
State whether positron is affected by magnetic fields
yes
50 of 100
State the relative charge of neutron
0
51 of 100
State the relative mass of neutron
1
52 of 100
State the ionising power of neutron
not directly ionising
53 of 100
State the penetrating power of neutron
high
54 of 100
State whether neutron is affected by magnetic fields
no since it is not charged
55 of 100
State the relative charge of gamma
0
56 of 100
State the relative mass of gamma
0
57 of 100
State the ionising power of gamma
not directly ionising
58 of 100
State the penetrating power of gamma
very high. stopped only by thick lead
59 of 100
State whether gamma is affected by magnetic fields
no since it is not charged
60 of 100
Low levels of radiation are present around you when?
all the time
61 of 100
What is natural and man-made radiation called?
background radiation
62 of 100
State a source of background radiation
radon gas (50%)
63 of 100
State a source of background radiation
food and drink (11.5%)
64 of 100
State a source of background radiation
other (0.2%)
65 of 100
State a source of background radiation
cosmic rays from space (10%)
66 of 100
State a source of background radiation
nuclear power (0.3%)
67 of 100
State a source of background radiation
medical (14%)
68 of 100
State a source of background radiation
ground and buildings (14%)
69 of 100
What is radon?
is a radioactive gas that is produced when uranium in rocks decays
70 of 100
How does radon decay?
by emitting an alpha particle
71 of 100
What is the GM tube used to detect?
nuclear radiation
72 of 100
Who came up with the plum pudding model?
J.J Thompson
73 of 100
Describe the plum pudding
negatively charged "electron plums", embedded in a uniform in a positively charged "dough"
74 of 100
What did Rutherford propose?
the atom must contain a very small, positively charged nucleus which electrons orbit
75 of 100
Who showed that electrons had to orbit a positive nucleus in well-defined energy levels or orbits but could move between energy levels if they gained or lost energy?
Niels Bohr
76 of 100
In beta minus decay, a neutron in the nucleus of an unstable atom decays to become what?
a proton and a neutron
77 of 100
In beta plus decay, a proton in the nucleus decays to become what?
a neutron and a positron
78 of 100
State the effect on the mass of the nucleus by alpha
nuclear mass reduced by 4 [-4]
79 of 100
State the effect on the mass of the nucleus by beta minus
no change [0]
80 of 100
State the effect on the mass of the nucleus by beta plus
no change [0]
81 of 100
State the effect on the mass of the nucleus by gamma
no effect
82 of 100
State the effect on the mass of the nucleus by neutron
mass reduced by 1
83 of 100
State the effect on the charge of the nucleus by alpha
positive charge reduced by 2 [-2]
84 of 100
State the effect on the charge of the nucleus by beta minus
positive charge increased by 1 [+1]
85 of 100
State the effect on the charge of the nucleus by beta plus
positive charge reduced by 1 [-1]
86 of 100
State the effect on the charge of the nucleus by gamma
no effect
87 of 100
State the effect on the charge of the nucleus by neutron
no change of nuclear charge
88 of 100
Neutron decay results in what?
another isotope of the same element being formed
89 of 100
The activity of a radioactive source is what?
the number of atoms that decay every second
90 of 100
When an atom decays it does what?
emits radiation but changes into a more stable isotope
91 of 100
The activity of a source depends on what?
how many unstable atoms there are in a sample, and on the particular isotope
92 of 100
As more and more atoms in a sample decay, there are fewer unstable ones left, so the activity does what?
it decreases
93 of 100
The half-life of a radioactive isotope is what?
is the time it takes for half of the unstable atoms to decay
94 of 100
The energy transferred by ionising radiation can remove what?
electrons from atoms to form ions
95 of 100
State a way to be protected by ionising radiation
limiting the time of exposure- keeping the time that a person needs to be in contact with the ionising radiation as low as possible
96 of 100
State a way to be protected by ionising radiation
wearing protective clothing- wearing a lead apron will absorb much of the ionising radiation
97 of 100
State a way to be protected by ionising radiation
increasing the distance from the person to the radioactive source- the further a person is from the ionising radiation, the less damage it will do
98 of 100
What is irradiation?
is ionising radiation from an external radioactive source travelling to the body- it is not breathed in, eaten or drunk
99 of 100
What does irradiation not refer to?
non-harmful rays from televisions, light bulbs or other non-ionising sources
100 of 100

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Atoms have a nucleus containing what?

Back

protons and neutrons

Card 3

Front

Electrons move around what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

An atom has the same number of what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

All atoms have what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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