# EDEXCEL GCSE 9-1 COMBINED SCIENCE FOUNDATION PHYSICS PAPER 1 PART 2

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What does Newton's third law relate to?

bodies in equilibrium and can be applied to collisions when considering the conservation of momentum

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What does Newton's third law state?

that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

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The action force and the reaction force act on what?

different bodies

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What is human reaction time?

is the time between a stimulus occurring and a response

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State the time it takes a typical person to react to a stimulus

between 0.20 s and 0.25 s

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How do you calculate reaction time?

reaction time= square root of 2 x distance ruler falls divided by gravitational field strength

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What is the stopping distance?

is the total distance over which a vehicle comes to rest

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What is the thinking distance?

the distance the car travels while the driver reacts to the danger and applies the brakes

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What is the braking distance?

the distance the car travels while it is slowing down, once the brakes have been applied

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How do you calculate the stopping distance?

add the thinking distance and the braking distance to calculate the stopping distance

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When does the thinking distance increase?

when the driver's reaction time increases

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State a factor affecting a driver's thinking distance

the driver being tired

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State a factor affecting a driver's thinking distance

the driver being distracted

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State a factor affecting a driver's thinking distance

the driver having taken alcohol or drugs

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State when braking distance increases

when the amount of friction between the tyres and road decreases, such as when the road is icy or wet

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State when braking distance increases

when the brakes are worn

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State when braking distance increases

when the tyres are worn

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State when braking distance increases

when the mass of the car is bigger

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State one energy store

chemical

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State one energy store

kinetic

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State one energy store

gravitational potential

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State one energy store

elastic

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State one energy store

thermal

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State one energy store

magnetic

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State one energy store

electrostatic

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State one energy store

nuclear

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State an example of a chemical energy store

fuel, food and batteries

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State an example of kinetic energy store

moving objects

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State an example of gravitational potential energy store

raised mass

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State an example of elastic energy store

stretched spring

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State an example of thermal energy store

hot object

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State an example of magnetic energy store

two magnets

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State an example of electrostatic energy store

two charges

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State an example of nuclear energy store

radioactive decay

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State one way how energy is transferred from one store to another

mechanically- by a force moving through a distance

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State one way how energy is transferred from one store to another

electrically- by the use of electric current

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State one way how energy is transferred from one store to another

thermally- because of a difference in temperature

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State one way how energy is transferred from one store to another

by radiation- by waves such as electromagnetic or sound

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When there are energy transfers in a closed system there is no what?

net change to the total energy in the system

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What is a closed system?

is where energy can flow in or out of the system but there is no transfer of mass

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When do mechanical processes become wasteful?

when they lead to a rise in temperature of the surroundings through heating

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What is the efficiency of a device?

is a measure of how much useful energy it transfers

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State one thing that the rate at which thermal energy is transferred through a wall of a house depends on

the difference in temperature between the warmer interior and the colder exterior

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State one thing that the rate at which thermal energy is transferred through a wall of a house depends on

the thickness of the walls

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State one thing that the rate at which thermal energy is transferred through a wall of a house depends on

the material that the walls are made from

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What is the efficiency of a machine?

is a way of saying how good it is at transferring energy into useful forms

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How do you calculate efficiency?

efficiency= useful energy supplied by the machine divided by the total energy supplied to the machine multiplied by 100

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What do most machines waste energy as?

heat energy

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How can unwanted energy transfers be reduced?

by thermal insulation and lubrication

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What does lubrication involve?

placing a liquid between moving parts to reduce friction and this leads to less energy being wasted as thermal energy to the surroundings

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Renewable energy resources will not?

run out

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Non-renewable energy resources are what?

available all the time

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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

What does Newton's third law state?

#### Back

that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

### Card 3

#### Front

The action force and the reaction force act on what?

#### Back

### Card 4

#### Front

What is human reaction time?

#### Back

### Card 5

#### Front

State the time it takes a typical person to react to a stimulus

#### Back

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