Edexcel Biology (B1) Topic 3

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Problems and Solutions to a Changing Environment.
Topic 3
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What is a Drug?
A Chemical Substance That Changes the Way the Body Works.
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What is a Stimulant?
A Drug That Increases the Transmission of Signals From Different Nerve Cells.
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Examples of Stimulants?
Caffine, Cannabis and Speed.
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What is a Sedative/Depressant?
A Drug That Slows Down the Nervous System and Reactions.
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Examples of Sedatives/Depressants?
Amytal and GHB.
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What is a Painkiller?
A Drug That Blocks Nerve Impulses Travelling to the Part of the Brain Responsible For Pain Awareness.
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Examples of Painkillers?
Paracetamol, Aspirin and Heroin.
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What is a Hallucinogen?
A Drug That Changes the Way Our Brain Works and Distorts Our Senses.
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Example of Hallucinogens?
LSD.
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What are Three of The Side Affects Caused By Smoking when Pregnant?
Miscarriage, Prematurity and Low Weight Babies.
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What is Nicotine?
An Addictive Substance That is Present in Tobacco.
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What Does Carbon Monoxide Do in the Body?
Combines With Haemoglobin Reducing The Blood Oxygen Carrying Capacity.
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What is Tar?
A Carcinogenic Substance Found in Tobacco Smoke.
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Short-Term Alcohol Effecrs?
Sleepiness, Blurred Vision and Slurred Speech.
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Long-Term Alcohol Effects?
Liver and Brain Damage.
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What is a Pathogen?
A Micro-Organism That Causes Infectious Diseases.
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What are The Two Ways Pathogens are Transmitted?
Direct and Indirect Contact.
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What are the Two Types of Direct Contact?
Vertical Transmission and Horizontal Transmission.
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What is Vertical Transmission?
When Microorganisms Pass From a Mother to Her Unborn Baby Through the Placenta.
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What is Horizontal Transmission?
When Microorganisms Pass From One Person to Another When Bodies Touch.
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What is the One Type of Indirect Contact?
Vehicle-Bourne Transmission.
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What is Vehcle-Bourne Transmission?
When an Object Carries the Disease-Causing Micro-Organisms.
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What is Vector-Bourne Transmission?
When an Animal Carries the Disease.
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What is a Antibiotic?
A Substance That Kills Bacteria or Stops Thier Growth.
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What is a Antifungal?
An Agent That Kills Fungi.
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Why is it Hard to Develop Drugs That Kill Viruses?
Its Hard to Make One That Doesn't Damage Body Tissue.
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What is a Antiseptic?
A Chemical Which Kills Microbes Outside of the Body.
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How Do We Slow Down or Stop Bacteria Resistant to Antibiotics?
Complete a Full Dose of Antibiotics or Avoid Unnecessary Use of Antibiotics.
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What is a Food Chain?
Something That Shows Who Eats What in a Particular Habitat.
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What Type of Organisms Make Up a Food Chain?
Producers, Primary Consumers, Secondary Consumers and Tertiary Consumers.
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Why is Energy Lost in a Food Chain?
This is Due to Movement, Respiration, Reproduction, Heat and Waste.
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HWta is Biomass?
The Mass of Living Material at Different Stages in a Food Chain.
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What Happens to the Biomass From One Stage to Another?
It Goes Down.
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What is Parasitism.
When a Parasite Lives in a Host and is the Only One to Benefit.
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How Does a Tapeworm Live of a host?
It Attaches Itself to the Gut Taking Nutrients From the Host's Food.
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Why Dont Parasites Kill There Host?
It Would Cut of Thier Food Supply.
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Name Two Other Types of Parasites?
Mistletoe and Headlice.
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What is Mutualism?
When Both Organisms Benefit From the Presence of Each Other.
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What are the Benefits in the Oxpecker and Ox Relationship?
The Oxpecker Gains Food From Eating Ticks and Larvae. The Ox Benefits By Becoming Uninfested.
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How Do The Cleaner Fish and Bigger Fish Benefit?
The Cleaner Fish Gets Food From Dead Skin and The Big Fish Become Clean.
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How Does Chemosynthetic Bacteria and Tubeworms Benefit?
Chemosynthetic Bacteria Uses the Tubeworm's Chemicals To MAke Food and The Tubeworms Feeds off of the Substance Used to Make the Food.
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What is Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria?
A Bacteria That Gains Sugar From Plants But Gives the Plants Nitrates in Return.
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What are the Three Types of Lichens and What Do They Indicate?
Bushy Lichen Indicate Clean Air, Leafy Lichens Indiacate Slightly Polluted Air and Crusty Lichens Indicate Really Polluted Air.
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When Does Blackspot Fungus Appear?
When the Air is Clean.
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What Are the Indicators For Polluted Water?
Bloodworms adn Sludgeworms?
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What Are the Indicators For Clean Water?
Stonefly and Fresh Water Shrimp?
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What is Eutrophication?
When Nitrates Cause Algae to Grow on Water Blocking Sunlight Meaning Plants Can't Photosynthesis. Bacteria Breaking Down the Dead Plants Use the Oxygen Meaning the Organisms Beneath Die.
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What Removes CO2 From the Atmosphere?
Photosynthesis.
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What Puts CO2 in the Atmosphere?
Respiration and Burning Fossil Fuels.
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How is Carbon Passed Between Organisms?
Animals Eating Plants and Microorganisms Decomposing Dead Animals or/and Plants.
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What Does Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Do in the Nxitrogen Cycle?
Converts Nitrogen Gas Into Nitrogen Compounds in the Soil or Root Nodules.
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What is Step Two in the Nitrogen Cycle?
Plants Absorbs Nitrates From Soil. The Plant May Be Eaten By an Animal.
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What is Step Three in the Nitrogen Cycle?
Decomposers Put Nitrogen Back Into the Soil By Breaking Down Urea.
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What is Step Four in the Nitrogen Cycle?
Ammonia is Added to the Soil By Decomposers Decomposing Dead Animals.
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What is Step Five in the Nitrogen Cycle?
Denitrifying Bacteria Break Down Nitrates and Return Nitrogen Back Into the Air.
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What Does Nitrifying Bacteria Do?
Converts Ammonia Into Nitrates.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a Drug?

Back

A Chemical Substance That Changes the Way the Body Works.

Card 3

Front

What is a Stimulant?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Examples of Stimulants?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a Sedative/Depressant?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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