Geography-coast

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  • Created by: Pablos
  • Created on: 07-04-18 13:05
What is weathering on coasts?
Weathering helps wear away rocks but leaves weathered material in situ.
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describe the process of chemical weathering?
Rocks reacting with slightly acidic water e.g. limestone with carbonation.
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Biological Weathering?
Action of plants/animals e.g. trees roots widen rock cracks with breaks the rock.
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Mechanical weathering?
Water falls into the cracks in rocks and freezes, causing it to expand; over time the repeated thawing and freezing causes the rock to break apart.
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Describe and explain mass movement on coasts?
Downhill movement of rocks due to gravity. Types of mass movement vary according to: material involved, amount of water in material and sliding/slumping.
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define Abrasion?
Breaking waves throw sand, pebbles, boulders against coast during storms.
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Define Hyradulic action?
The sheer wight and impact of water agianst coastline, particularly during a strom, erodes the coast.
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Define Attrition?
Rocks/pebbles carried by waves rub together and break to smaller pieces.
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Define soultion?
Chemical action of seawater dissolves rocks.
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What's the process of beach sediment transported along the coast by waves?
Longshore drift
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why does the sediment travel in a zig-zag motion?
swash-forces sediment up 45degrees and peveailing wind will also make it do in that direction and angle. Backwash will bring it back down at 90degrees and also caused by gravity.
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Give 4 ways in which waves transport material?
Traction, saltation, suspension, solution.
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Describe process of deposition?
The load carried by waves is deposited by constructive waves and it's the dropping of material.
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soft rocks in coastal landscapes?
e.g clay. soft rock easily eroded by sea, cliffs are less rugged and steep, lanscape of thi includes bays.
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Hard rocks in coastal landscapes?
e.g. granite, resistant to all erosion, cliffs are high/steep/rugged, landscapes include wave-cut platforms/headlands(where caves stacks arches form)
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What are Concordant coasts?
Made up of the same rock type.
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Discordant coasts?
The rock types alternates, forming bays and headlands.
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Similarities/differences of joints and faults?
Joints are smaller cracks, faults are larger. Both make rock prone to erosion. Rocks with more joints and faults erode more quickly.
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Features of destructrive waves?
Weak swash, strong backwash, high energy, occurs in stormy conditions and material is dragged into the sea.
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Features of constructive waves?
strong swash, weak backwash, lower energy, occur in calm conditions and material is deposited (building coast up).
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What are the effects of stormy weather?
1.heavy rainfall,strongwinds, eroding power on waves. 2. damage to landforms 3. beach sediment removed from coastline. 4. sand dunes removed by storms.
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How does Prevailing wind occur?
In the UK from the SW. This brings warm moist air from Atlantic and rainfall which enhances weathering and mass movement.
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Define Coastal erosion?
Breaking down and removal of material long coast.
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Define Coastal retreat?
Coastal ersoion causes the coatsline to move further inland.
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Give the erosional landforms?
Headlands, bays, clifs, caves/stacks/arches, wave-cut platforms.
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Give the depositional landforms?
beaches, spits and bars.
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How does Urbanisation affect coasta landscapes?
cliffs can't support weight of buildings, cahnages to drainage increase soil saturation,
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How does Agriculture affect Coasts?
Increases soil erosion and sedimentation, creates wildlife habitats.
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How does Industry affect Coasts?
Increases air/noise/visual pollution, destroys habitats, brinfgs wealth and jobs to an area.
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Give 2 envirmental effects of coastal retreats/flooding?
Wildlife habitats destroyed, increased depostion futher along the coasts.
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Give 2 social effects of coastal retreats/flooding?
Loss of homes/ buisnesses, distripution to travel(roads,railway lines - difficulties for commuters).
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give pros of rip rap defences?
Rocks absorb wave energy and it's cheap
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What pevent sea removing sand?
groynes
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Disadaventages of offshore reef?
May interfere with fishing and very expensive.
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Why is beach plemishment good?
sand is taken away which reduces wave energy, maintains tourism and is cheap.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

describe the process of chemical weathering?

Back

Rocks reacting with slightly acidic water e.g. limestone with carbonation.

Card 3

Front

Biological Weathering?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Mechanical weathering?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe and explain mass movement on coasts?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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