Ecosystems

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What is an ecosystem?
Any group of living organisms and non-living organisms occurring together and the interrelationships between them
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What kind of system is an ecosystem?
Dynamic- Population size constantly changing
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What is a biotic factor? Examples?
Living components of an ecosystem. Eg Food sources, Predation and Disease
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What is an abiotic factor? Examples?
Non living components of an ecosystem: pH, temperature and soil type
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Define the terms: Producer, consumer, decomposer and trophic level
Producer:Provides energy to all other organisms, Consumer:Other organisms; Primary; Herbivores eaten by carnivorous secondary eaten by carnivorous tertiary, Decomposer: Feed on dead/waste material, Trophic level: Feeding level
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How is energy transferred through an ecosystem?
Producer>Primary Consumer>Secondary Consumer>Tertiary Consumer
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Discuss the efficiency of energy transfer between trophic levels
Energy lost through respiration/ heat, waste, dead material undigested. Fewer consumers at higher levels. Less Biomass
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How can human activity manipulate the flow of energy through ecosystems?
Gross Primary Production: Rate plants convert light to chemical energy (Deforestation) Primary Production: Irrigation, ideal temps, pesticides, nutrients, kill weeds/bacteria. Secondary P. Kill young, selective breeding, antibiotoics, keep stable env
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Give one example of primary succession resulting in a climax community
Climax Community: Final, Stable community. From bare ground: Primary Succession. Pioneer plant(tolerate harsh conditions, rocket)> Stabilization(mini sand dune)> More nitrients(Maram grass- traps sand)> Other plants(More stability eg clovers)
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Describe how the distribution and abundance of organisms can be measured using line and belt transects, and quadrats/point quadrats
Line transects: Reg. intervals, Note species touching tape. Belt: Reg. intervals, quadrat next to tape( interrupted or continuous based on movement) Quadrat: Percentage cover, abundamce, random, kite diagram, repeat, mean.
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What is the role of decomposers in the decomposition of organic material
Recycling of energy and valuable nutrients. Carbon and nitrogen cycle contribution, Saprotrophs. Absorption of materials stored or respired to release energy
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How do microorganisms recycle nitrogen in ecosystems?
N2 in air> Fixation,Rhizobium> Org. Nit. Legumous plants, plants and animals> Feed animals> Death> Org nit. in soil/ Urea- Ammonium> Oxidation(Somonass)> Nitrites ox.Bacter>Nitrates> Denitrif./ Leaching>Fixation> NO/NH4 and Nitrates
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Card 2

Front

What kind of system is an ecosystem?

Back

Dynamic- Population size constantly changing

Card 3

Front

What is a biotic factor? Examples?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What is an abiotic factor? Examples?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define the terms: Producer, consumer, decomposer and trophic level

Back

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