Economic reforms

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what were the fundamental areas in which peter reformed the economy?
Mercantilism, trade, communication, large scale industry, small- scale business, tax, agriculture, role of state
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what is the key phrase that sums up wy peter reformed the economy? who did he say this to?
'Money is the artery of war' the senate
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outline Peter's beliefs in mercantilism:
to increase power and wealth through expanding territory, developing natural resources and achieving net exports
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what does mercantilism mean?
Increasing power/wealth by controlling trade with other nations
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What happened to levels of foreign trade during Peter's reign and how did this happen?
Increased through western mercantilism/advisers
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when did Peter realise that the Russian economy needed reforming?
on the Greate Embassy 1697-98 where he realised the backwardness of Russia compared to West Europe, he realised Russia would benefit greatly from trade with the West, Russian people were poorly skilled
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how did Peter use the Great embassy to his advantage?
learnt the idea of mercantilism from Holland, England, and France studied their methods and brought them back to be used in Russia, brought experts from Europe and encouraged western ideas
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how successful was Russia in trade before peter?
not very: was landlocked and isolated, no access to the black or Baltic sea which were key trade routes, only port Archangel was ice-bound for half of the year
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where was trade most prevalent in Russia?
gained 7 ports in the baltic by the end of his reign with over 900 ships reaching these annually,2 built himself; Kronstadt and St Petersburg Diverted trade successfully from Archangel to St Petersburg, 240 ships were reaching st Petersburg annually
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what evidence is there of Peter's success of establishing trade
1727 achieved net exports with 2.5 million roubles exports versuses 1.5 million roubles imports
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who were Russia's main trading partners?
West; Holland and England, East; Persia and China
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how did Peter fail to establish trade?
Black sea trade failed with the loss of Azov after the loss of 1711 Pruth campaign, Failed to establish a merchant marine
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what was industry like before Peter?
underdeveloped with a lack of enterprise since the conditions were right and restrictive
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how did foreigners have an influence on the development of large-scale industry?
Chinese experts helped-build bridges, new industries started by foreign craftsmen, thousands-were brought into Russia, Peter sent Russians abroad to learn about industry e.g to make brooms, German Quarter outside Moscow- centre-technological advance
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how successful was Peter in establishing large scale industry
fairly successful; 4 iron sentries were developed@ Tula, the Urals, Olentz and St Petersburg, 1701 to 1704 several new iron works were founded in the Urals
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why did industry develop?
to satisfy- military and artillery demands of war, textile industry also developed around Moscow after 1696- satisfy demands for sailcloths and uniforms
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how successful was the iron industry?
52 foundries created in his reign, iron centre @tula-able to supply entire army with armaments- 1711 Russia was self sufficient- fire arm production, 1716 Russia= net exporter in iron, 1725- 16000 canons in reserve 1750 worlds largest iron exporter
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in what ways was Peer unsuccessful in promoting industry?
wool and silk lost money and failed, Peter didn't devote enough money/attention to them as he did not see them as a necessary for mobilising Russia for war
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why did Peter develop communication?
was a serious hindrance to economic development. It took 5 weeks to travel from St Peterburg- Moscow- Band roads
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how did Peter try to improve communication
constructed a canal system, attempted to build roads
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how successful was his canal system?
- only 1 of the 6 routes was completed in 1632 linking St Petersburgto the Volga canal, the projects employed tens of thousands- thousands dying, 1711 loss of Azov= plan to connect Volga+ Don= abandoned
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How successful was his road building?
less successful but managed to establish caravan routes along which Hungarian wine was imported
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what small industries emerged?
towns; furriers; shoemakers, soap, manufacturers, carpenters, tailors, carpenters specialists in Moscow/ St Peterburg; wigs chairs carriages gowns
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what evidence is there of small industries?
2500 tradesmen in Moscow 7500 in st Petersburg many of these= foreign
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how was the gorvenment involved in small scale industry?
encouraged guilds and higher standards, regulated cloth widths, forbid the use of tar and shoe making , BUT regulations= difficult to enforce
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what is the key phrase that sums up wy peter reformed the economy? who did he say this to?


'Money is the artery of war' the senate

Card 3


outline Peter's beliefs in mercantilism:


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Card 4


what does mercantilism mean?


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Card 5


What happened to levels of foreign trade during Peter's reign and how did this happen?


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