eating behaviour

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What is homeostasis?
The process by which the body maintains a constant internal environment
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How is homeostasis controlled?
The negative feedback loop
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What does the negative feedback loop assume?
All body variables have a set point
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What is the set point?
A range of values within which the body wants to be maintained
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What is neuropeptide Y (NPY)?
Neurontransmitter which has high concentrations in the hypothalmus, it is thought to turn on eating
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What is the amygdala?
Primitive part of the brain, thought to be responsible for food selection on basis of prior experience
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What is leptin?
A protein, and a long term satiety signal released by fat cells
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What is the Lateral Hypothalamus?
It contains the feeding centre, initiates eating
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What does the LH respond to?
Decreased blood glucose and increase in ghrelin
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What is the Ventro Medial Hypothalamus (VMH)?
Contains the satiety centre which inhibits eating behaviour when we are full
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What does the VMH respond to?
An increase in blood glucose, decrease in ghrelin and leptin
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What is ghrelin?
A hormone released from the stomach when it is empty, signalling the hypothalamus to stimulate feeding, the amount released is proportional to the emptiness of the stomach
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What is glucose?
Falls in the level of this in the blood are sensed by the hypothalamus and stimulate feeding behaviour
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What is the satiety signal?
Any neural or hormonal process that tells the hypothalmus to inhibit feeding
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What is the hypothalamus?
Stucture in the forebrain, which controls the pituitary gland and the ANS, also contains centres for the control of feeding behaviours
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What did Rolls and Rolls find?
Surgically removing amygdala in rats caused animals to eat both novel and familiar foods, rats with amydala with amydala initally avoid novel foods and only consume familiar foods
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How do we develop the attitudes?
Most attitudes are the result of either direct experience or observational learning from the environment, affective response, cognitive response, behavioural response
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What is the affective response?
An emotional response that expresses an individuals degree of preference for an entity
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What is the behavioural intention?
A verbal indication or typical behavioural tendency of an individual
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What is the cognitive response?
A cognitive evaluation of the entity (an indivds belief about object)
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What is a direct experience?
Related to taste and the physical and psychological consequences of eating certain foods (instant learning)
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What is observational learning?
Depends on familiarity, parental example and cultural factors
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How can we learn attitudes to food by SLT?
Learning through modelling people we admire and adapting their behaviour, such as parental modelling: observe eating behaviours of parents, our parents control food bought for children and influence eating behaviour
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How can we learn eating behaviour through media?
Impact of TV and othe median magazines, people can learn about healthy eating through media
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What did MacIntyre find?
Media has a major impact on what people eat and attitudes to food, however many eating behaviours are limited by personal circumstance eg age and incom
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How can ethnicity influence eating behaviour?
Body dissatisfaction related eating concerns and disorders are more characterics of white woman than black and Asian, breast feeding influence eating, bcos flavours the milke eq indian spices = child adapts to spicy food
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How does mood have an impact on attitudes towards eating?
Binge eating research has found individuals with bulimia complain or anorexia prior to a binge such as Davis et al, comfort eating junk food when feeling low
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What is the theory of ironic process of mental control?
Attempts to supress thoughts about particular things only serves to increae preoccupation with them
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What is a restrained eater?
Someone who is trying to eat less, they eat until they reach a cognitive boundary and artificial satiety, set by themselves to a certain limit eq number of calories
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What is an unrestrained eater?
Eats until satiety using the physiological boundary determined by their body weight set point
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What is a physilogical boundary?
Body fat stores act as a point, the natural way, normally the mechanisms dont allow for much weight fluctation
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What is a cognitive boundary?
Set by individual, they set boundaries less than satiety
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Who discovered the boundary model?
Herman & Polivy
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What happens if cross the cognitive boundary?
Disinhibition effect (what the hell effect) which is where the person carries on eating, even beyond physiological point of satiety
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How have we evolved from apes?
We were vegetarians in modern hunter gather, have rapidly became omnivores and our digestive systems are different as theirs are specialised for the digestion of plant
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Why is an advantage for us to eat meat in EEA?
High calories and protein, meat contains more nutrients in which is thought to have been beneficial to develop our brains as they needed to develop to have skills specialised for hunting, hence suggests preference for savoury foods traced back to EEA
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What is evidence we have made this shift?
Fossils show that our teeth developed canine teeth for meat
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Why do we have a preference to sweet things?
Eating fruit would provide us with carbohydrates and a rich source of energy,it now encourages us to eat sweet things like cake and sweets, due to an obesogenic environment
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Why is our preference to sweet things a problem?
We no longer hunt and use up energy, so it can cause problems such as obesity
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What does bitter and sweet food help us do?
The receptors help us identify food that has gone off, leads to facial expressions of disgust, seen in human infants and other primates, suggesting it is innate
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What is the EEA?
The Environment of Evolutionary Adaprtation; natural selection favoured adaptations geared towards survival
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What is anorexia nervosa?
An eating disorder characterised by extreme body dissatisfaction
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How often does anorexia occur?
About 0.5% of the population
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What are physical characteristics of anorexia?
Body weight below 85% of expected, rapid weight loss, stops periods (can lead to infertility) and malnutrition and starvation
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What are cognitive characteristics of anorexia?
Perceive self as overweight, even when seriously under weight and thinks weight loss isn't serious
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What are emotional characteristics of anorexia?
Becomes socially withdrawn and intense fear of becoming fat
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What are behavioural characteristics of anorexia?
Obsessive exercising, secretive hide food so it appears they haven't eaten and refusal to eat despite hunger
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When is weight seen as abnormal?
Considered abnormal when drops below 85% of individuals normal weight
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What is Bandura's 4 steps of modelling for anorexia?
i.Attention:to high status person who is perceived as similar ii.Retention-observed behaviours are memorised iii.Reproduction-imitation occurs if person has skills to reproduce the observed behaviour iv. Motivation: neg & pos eg congratulate loss
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What is the effect of media on anorexia?
Body image attitudes maintained by Western adolescents, portrayal of thin models on TV and magazines, contributing factor in body image concerns and drive for thinness, doesn't influence everyone the same eq low self esteem more likely to be affected
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What is the effect of cultural ideals on anorexia?
Western standards of attractiveness are an important contributing factor, many studies found teens are dissatisfied with their bodies
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What did the National Diet and Nutrition survey find?
16% of girls in UK aged 15-18 currently on a diet
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What did Jones and Crawford find about AN?
Over weight girls and underweight boys were most likely to be teased about appearance
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What does Hilde Brunch believe?
Origins of AN are in childhood,
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What does Hilde Brunch believe causes AN?
Ineffective parents who fail to respond to childs needs, for example if crying because anxious parent may feed them or comfort them when hungry, hence they may grow up confused about internal needs and become over reliant on them
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How does ineffective parents lead to AN in adolescence?
Adolescents increase desire to establish autonomy but are often unable to do so, feeling they dont own own bodies, so to over come this they take excessive control of body shape and size and develop eating habits
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How does personality effect AN?
Perfectionism is often found in people with AN or other eating disorders
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What did Strober find?
Found high levels of perfectionism in 73% of girls receiving treatment for AN and 50% of boys
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How can serotonin levels cause anorexia?
Correlation between distruption of serotonin levels and increased anxiety, may trigger AN, A characteristic of AN is a disturbance in serotonin levels
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What did Baller find?
Showed women recovering from binge eating/purging type AN when treated with SSRI's medication didn't work on severly underweight AN patients but helped recovery in AN with normal weight
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How did Kaye et al find dopamine levels can cause AN?
Used PET scan compared dopamine activity in brains of 10 women recovering from AN and 12 healthy, found over-activity in dopamine receptors where dopamine plays role in interpretations of harm and pleasure
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What is the reproductive suppression hypothesis?
Surbey believed girls have a desire to control their weight to delay their sexual maturity by stopping menstrual cycle through AN, due to poor biological, emotional and social conditions
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What is the adapted to flee hypothesis?
Symptoms of AN such as hyperactivity and denial of starvation, it is adaptive because of migration in case of a famine, weight liss is accompanied with conservation of energy and increased desire for food which was turned off by ancestors to survive
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How is homeostasis controlled?


The negative feedback loop

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What does the negative feedback loop assume?


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Card 4


What is the set point?


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Card 5


What is neuropeptide Y (NPY)?


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